Nevertheless, ZnO has one major drawback, which is the lack of stable and reproducible p-type ZnO with low resistivity, high carrier concentration, and high carrier mobility. Doping with the first group elements like Li, Na, K, and Cs in ZnO would substitute Zn2+ by the monovalent cations, thus making it possible to realize n-type conduction. The realization of n-type conduction is very important for ZnO applications in optoelectronic devices, and there are reports on the electrical property
of the first group element-doped ZnO thin-films [32–36]. buy PD173074 Various techniques such as pulsed laser deposition [37, 38], magnetron sputtering [39, 40], and molecular beam epitaxy  have been used to deposit thin-films of ZnO. The sol-gel method  has been receiving increased attention because
of its many advantages such as low cost, Alvocidib supplier simple deposition procedure, easier composition control, low processing temperature, and easier fabrication of large area films. Therefore, here, we demonstrate the improved performance of P3HT:PCBM and P3HT:ICBA-based inverted bulk-heterojunction solar cells see more through the appropriate interface modification by Cs2CO3-doped ZnO on the electron collecting ITO interface. Recently, Yang et al. has reported that a solution-processed Cs2CO3 is able to make interface dipoles layer on ITO. One may say that these two entities (ZnO and Cs2CO3)
are completely different but the most important thing is that these entities do improve the performance of the device. Moreover, we have seen a number of works on tuning the work function of ITO by adding an electron transport layer such as ZnO , TiO2 [44–46], Cs2CO3 [44–46], and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) . The created dipole moment helps to reduce the work function of ITO, allowing ITO to serve as the cathode. The improved device performance is due to the reduction of series resistance, improved shunt performance, and enhanced open-circuit voltage of the cell which can be attributed to the improvement of the following aspects: (1) reduction of the contact resistance between the ZnO:Cs2CO3 and active organic buy Cobimetinib layer, (2) enhancement of the electronic coupling between inorganic ZnO:Cs2CO3 and active organic layer to mediate better forward charge transfer and reduce back charge recombination at the interface, and (3) affect the upper organic layer growth mode and morphology. Methods ZnO solution preparation ZnO solution was prepared using similar procedures to the one reported by Jang et al. . Cs2CO3 solution was prepared by dissolving in ethanol in the ratio of 1.25 wt%. Organic solar cell fabrication Schematic diagram of organic solar cells is shown in Figure 1b, where the device is fabricated using pre-patterned ITO-coated glass substrate.