9 between both datasets To identify highly expressed transcripts

9 between both datasets. To identify highly expressed transcripts and their putative functions, we selected the 100 most abundant transcripts based on their RPKM values in the CP and CS datasets, and investigated the biological processes in which those transcripts might be involved. Although many transcripts (15

in CP and 23 in CS) could not be assigned to known biological processes, most (52 in CP and 51 in CS) were involved in stress response and protein metabolism, including pathogenesis-related proteins, antioxidant enzymes, heat-shock proteins, and metallothionein-like proteins in the stress response category, and translation- and protein RG7204 clinical trial degradation-related proteins in the protein metabolism category (Fig. 4). After these, transcripts related to lipid metabolism, such as fatty acid desaturases and lipid transfer proteins, were most abundant. Ginsenosides click here are the most important phytochemicals in ginseng and are known to be synthesized through the mevalonic acid pathway [24]. We focused on downstream enzymes from farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDS) to UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) in the mevalonic acid pathway (Fig. 5A). In previous studies, 17 genes for the seven downstream enzymes (FDS to protopanaxatriol synthase) have been reported in P. ginseng [25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30], [31] and [32] ( Table 2). We used amino acid sequences of the 17 genes as queries for TBLASTN searches against transcript

datasets of the CP cultivar, resulting in the identification of 10 genes encoding the seven downstream enzymes. Of them, a single transcript for FDS was identified with 15 isoforms in the CP dataset ( Table 2). Squalene synthase, dammarenediol synthase, Cediranib (AZD2171) β-amyrin synthase,

protopanaxadiol synthase (CYP716A47), and protopanaxatriol synthase (CYP716A53v2) were also identified to be encoded by single transcripts with several isoforms. Exceptionally, four transcripts were identified for squalene epoxidase. Although we identified the isoforms using a reliable algorithm (Trinity assembler), the forthcoming P. ginseng genome sequence will provide more solid information about them. Based on our analysis, we considered that the isoforms are likely to originate from a single gene. To investigate the expression levels of the transcripts, the RPKM values of isoforms from the same transcripts were averaged and compared (Fig. 5B). All showed similar expression levels between CP and CS cultivars, with transcripts encoding cytochrome P450 for protopanaxatriol synthase showing the highest expression in both cultivars. Three UGT proteins, SvUGT74M1, MtUGT73K1, and MtUGT71G1, were used as queries for TBLASTN searches, because UGT genes for ginsenoside biosynthesis had not been identified in P. ginseng. Three UGT proteins were reported to function in triterpene saponin biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula and Saponaria vaccaria [33] and [34].

Ingestion of silicone and fat by these alveolar macrophages has a

Ingestion of silicone and fat by these alveolar macrophages has also been postulated to result in modulation of pulmonary immunoregulatory mechanisms and provoke an exaggerated inflammatory response. These suggest a common pathophysiologic mechanism involving the coagulation system in both FES and SES. Notably, most patients with SES meet Schonfield criteria for fat embolism syndrome where the presence of petechial hemorrhages, chest x-ray changes, hypoxemia, tachycardia, tachypnea, confusion and fever are used to determine CDK inhibitor a cumulative score.1 While treatment is largely supportive with supplemental oxygen and high

dose steroid administration constituting the mainstay of therapy, the use of adjunct salvage mechanical ventilation techniques, and recruitment maneuvers like prone ventilation have been suggested to improve oxygenation.2 The present patient appeared to be in ARDS from pulmonary silicone embolism and presented issues of futility of care exacerbated by unprecedented high doses of silicone injection. These facilitated a progressively rapid decline in her clinical course. She rapidly deteriorated despite application of evidence based

protocols for treatment of ARDS, and lapsed into pulseless electrical activity, expiring 3 h post intubation. Illicit use of injectable silicone is on the rise in the United States and abroad. With this comes an increasing incidence of related morbidities and fatalities. A high index of suspicion selleck for SES should be triggered in patients with neurologic or pulmonary symptoms and recent exposure to liquid silicone. No funding GPX6 source. Ayodeji O. Adegunsoye MD – Contributed to the drafting, data collation and writing the article. Stephen Matchett MD – Contributed to the drafting and editing of the article. Dominic J. Valentino III DO

FCCP – Contributed to the drafting and editing of the article. The authors have no conflict of interest. “
“Lung transplantation (Ltx) is an accepted therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease and offers a major survival benefit in selected patients. The most important indications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (29%) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (24%) besides cystic fibrosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension.1 The incidence of lung cancer is 4.1% in patients after Ltx, this is 20–25 times higher than in the general population.2 Diagnosis is often difficult in IPF patients because of the diffuse lung abnormalities due to the underlying fibrosis. Moreover, the lung cancer may mimic a pulmonary infection. We describe three patients who were transplanted for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and who developed a primary lung cancer. Patient A, a 48-year old male with IPF presented 7 years after successful single Ltx with dyspnoea, weight loss and cough. At that time he was renovating his house.

Urea–PAGE was performed at a constant

voltage of 80 V, us

Urea–PAGE was performed at a constant

voltage of 80 V, using 0.046 M tris–glycine, pH 6.7, as running buffer. Gels were stained overnight with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 and destained with ethanol/acetic acid/water 3:1:6 (v/v/v) solution. Water soluble extract from cheese selleck samples were prepared according to Kuchroo and Fox (1982). Cheese samples were freeze dried to eliminate possible interferences caused by differences in moisture content. Homogenisation of 1 part grated cheese with 2 parts distilled water was carried out for 5 min using a Stomacher. The resulting solution was kept at 40 °C for 1 h. To obtain fractions of pH 4.6-soluble nitrogen, HCl 1 N was used to adjust the pH of the solution to 4.6. Afterwards, samples were centrifuged at 3300g for 30 min at 4 °C. The

supernatant was filtered through glass wool and afterwards through Whatman paper No. 1 and thus contained the nitrogenous portion soluble in pH 4.6. Samples were then freeze dried prior to RP-HPLC analyses. RP-HPLC analyses were carried out according to Baldini (1998). For this, a Dionex P680 HPLC Pump was fitted with a Dionex 201SP C18 5 μm reversed phase column (4.6 × 250 mm) and a Jasco UV-975 detector at wavelength of 214 nm. Solvents used were A: trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) at 0.1% (v/v) in water; B: TFA at 0.1% Mdm2 antagonist (v/v) in HPLC grade acetonitrile. One aliquot of 10 mg of freeze dried sample was dissolved in 1 ml of A, centrifuged at 13,000 rpm/20 min, filtered (0.22 μm) and 20 μl was injected and initially eluted with 100% A, then with a linear gradient of 0–50% of B for 55 min, followed by a linear gradient of 60% B for 4 min and finally with 60% B for 3 min. A flow Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) rate of 0.75 ml/min was kept. To establish statistical differences on data for the chemical analysis, according to the type of coagulant used, period of ripening and the interaction among these two factors, the

results were analysed using the program ESTAT (Sistema para Análises Estatísticas, version 2.0, UNESP-Jaboticabal), by analysis of variance using F test and comparison of means by Tukey test (p < 0.05). Yield of cheese production was of 9.9 l of milk to manufacture 1 kg of cheese with the commercial coagulant and of 10.5 l of milk to manufacture 1 kg of cheese with coagulant from Thermomucor, which is very similar. Table 1 shows the results from the chemical characterisation of cheeses during ripening. The data show a typical Prato cheese composition with very similar results for both processes regarding protein, fat, moisture and salt composition indicating that the production of Prato cheese with the coagulant form Thermomucor can be executed under conventional manufacturing conditions. In spite of moisture content of cheese made with commercial coagulant (43.98%) be higher than the one made with coagulant from Thermomucor (42.

The boreal forest and tundra biomes are also very poorly represen

The boreal forest and tundra biomes are also very poorly represented in terms of eCO2 research (Fig. 2a). Estimates suggest that together 540–1700 Gt of C is stored in the soils and living biomass of these biomes (UNEP-WCMC, 2008 and Tarnocai et al., 2009) (see Supplementary data S1). Most C (ca. 85%) in the boreal forest biome is stored in soil (Malhi et al., 1999) and understanding the response of this immense carbon reserve to combined global changes, including eCO2, remains a research priority. It is uncertain whether increased C sequestration will occur with eCO2 conditions and under a warming

atmosphere. However, we need to establish if the addition of new carbon, particularly with warmer conditions, is likely to prime the release of old carbon from these soil stores BLU9931 mouse (Freeman et al., 2004 and van Groenigen et al., 2014), thereby positively feeding back on eCO2. From our synthesis we conclude that a global strategy for eCO2 research needs to be completed. Outstanding needs include

accounting for remaining uncertainty in the effects of eCO2 on plant productivity and soil C Z VAD FMK storage. Such information is essential in order to effectively predict global C dynamics under a future eCO2 climate, particularly in the most understudied ecosystems with the greatest potential influence on C dynamics globally. At a global scale, these are the highly productive forests of the tropics (Pan et al., 2011) and the soils of tundra and boreal regions (Tarnocai et al., 2009), both of which have been largely overlooked by long-term eCO2 research programs. Long term eCO2 experimentation in these areas would support integrated modeling with improved resolution for these biomes, in order to integrate plant Gemcitabine and soil processes at the global scale. To be effective, this research would need be coordinated and follow standardized protocols for plant productivity assessments and soil C fluxes. This could be integrated with existing global carbon dynamics studies that have standardized methodologies for

C dynamics monitoring, such as the Global Ecosystems Monitoring Network (GEM) which uses a network of 1 ha forest plots (Marthews et al., 2012). A network of spatially smaller eCO2 experiments could be embedded to build on existing knowledge and expertise. Such an approach would deliver a thorough account of above and below ground fluxes in both plant productivity and soil carbon in response to eCO2. By standardizing measurements and instrumentation, direct comparisons could be made between a range of forest plant communities, thereby allowing the spatial and temporal limits of the CO2 fertilization effect to be quantified according to climate, habitat type and disturbance history, within major biomes for C sink activity. Importantly the new generation of eCO2 experiments needs to be designed to have a low carbon footprint, possibly utilizing CO2 “wastes” and local resources (e.g.

As interruption events, we returned to the math tasks

As interruption events, we returned to the math tasks Ion Channel Ligand Library clinical trial from Experiments 1–3, but presented

at random locations (as in Experiment 3). A total of 60 students of the University of Oregon participated in exchange for course credits in this experiment. On each trial, four squares (4° side length) were presented at one of four locations, in a crosswise arrangement (8° from the center of the screen). Additionally, a single word (UP, DOWN, LEFT, or RIGHT, presented in 24 point Helvetica font) appeared in the center of one of the squares. Subjects responded with their right-hand index finger by pressing either the 2 (bottom), 4 (left), 6 (right), or 8 (top) key on the numerical keyboard. In the word task, subjects were instructed to press the key that corresponded to the word that was displayed. In the location task, subjects’ key responses were compatible with the spatial location of the word. Each block was 100 trials long. The response–stimulus interval was 1000 ms. The math interruption task was presented exactly as in Experiments 3. Subjects PF-02341066 purchase were randomly selected into the experimental condition or in one of two single-task controls conditions. In the experimental

condition (N = 20), subjects alternated between pure word and pure location blocks. In each of the two control conditions (N = 20), subjects either performed only the word or only the location task throughout the experiment. As in the previous experiments, participants performed on initial practice block for each task that was identical to the following test blocks. We used the same trial exclusion cAMP criteria as in the previous experiments. Initial analyses revealed that in this experiment, different results were obtained for the first vs. the second half of each block. Therefore, Fig. 7 shows the RT and error pattern separated by block half. Given that in this experiment, error patterns could reflect theoretically relevant response-conflict effects, we analyzed them here as well. Turning first to the experimental group, in the first block half there was a clear RT cost-asymmetry pattern,

whereas in the second block half, overall interruption costs and the cost asymmetry pattern were much smaller. In the experimental group, the two-way interaction indicative of the cost asymmetry pattern did not quite reach the significance criterion, F(1, 19) = 3.19, MSE = 3183.20, p > .09; the same is true for the additional modulation of this effect through the response-congruency factor, F(1, 19) = 3.28, MSE = 1224.43, p < .09. However, the cost-asymmetry interaction was significantly modulated through the block-half factor, F(1, 19) = 5.36, MSE = 3466.19, p < .04. In the first half, the cost asymmetry was reliable, F(1, 19) = 6.84, MSE = 2386.41, p < .02, and the additional modulation of this effect by the response-conflict factor was almost reliable, F(1, 19) = 3.83, MSE = 1038.90, p < .07.

At the time of our surveys the time since clearfelling varied fro

At the time of our surveys the time since clearfelling varied from 1 to 15 years. Table 1 details the date surveys were carried out. The area of clearfells

was estimated using digitized maps and varied between 0.9 and 35.2 ha. We compared the rates of native tree regeneration on these clearfelled sites this website to nearby areas which had not been previously planted with conifers (control sites). We surveyed 6 control sites. The control sites were typically situated less than 1 km from the study sites. At a number of the sites former agricultural use had resulted in considerable alteration to the vegetation and the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Therefore we broadly classified all sites as either upland moorland (UM), upland improved farmland (IF) or PAWS (P) based on the present land-use of the control sites or the land-use prior to afforestation for the clearfelled sites. Both the control and the clearfelled sites were fenced to exclude stock. Capreolus capreolus (roe deer) and Cervus elaphus (red deer) were present at the Clashindarroch and Lake District sites. Only roe deer occurred IWR-1 in vivo in Bin forest. Deer control was practiced by the Forestry Commission at all sites. Sites were surveyed using 2 × 2 m temporary quadrats placed along equally spaced line transects. The

separation S   (in m) between transects and between quadrats on transects was computed by the formula ( Harmer and Morgan, 2009): S=100A/n, where A is the site area (ha) and n the number of quadrats (detailed in Table 1). Quadrats on forest track margins were omitted. In total we surveyed 1140 quadrats. Within each quadrat the species, number and height of all regenerating juveniles (defined here as either seedlings with a height ⩽50 cm or saplings with a height >50 cm) were noted. The height of saplings was measured with an extensible folding

rule. The incidence of leading stems damaged by browsing buy Fludarabine on trees <2 m tall was noted. No attempt was made to distinguish the different birch, oak and willow spp. The distance to the nearest seed source (defined as a mature tree) was measured in the field for each tree species (all the sampled plots lay within 250 m of a native seed source). Within each quadrat we recorded the percentage of quadrat area beneath the canopy of each vascular plant species (as 2 or more species can overlap, this can result in a total vegetation cover of more than 100%) as well as the percentage cover of decaying woody debris (stumps, fallen logs and brash). Soil samples were taken from each quadrat and the pH was measured electrometrically using a soil–water paste. We were interested in the effect of brash on regeneration density so in sites that had been recently clearfelled (U6a, F2 and F4) a transect with equally spaced quadrats was oriented along a windrow and, parallel to this, another transect along the adjacent area (interrow) between the windrows.

, 2010) To elucidate if glucoevatromonoside presented virus-inac

, 2010). To elucidate if glucoevatromonoside presented virus-inactivating

activity, a virucidal assay was performed, where infectious particles of HSV-1 were put in contact with different concentrations of glucoevatromonoside prior to be titrated by a plaque reduction assay. This treatment was not able to inhibit HSV-1 replication, even at a concentration 80 times higher (10 μM) than its IC50 (0.13 μM). Therefore, the anti-HSV activity of this compound was not exerted directly on HSV-1 particles before they have entered into the cells confirming the findings previously described for other cardenolides (Hartley et al., 2006, Nagai et al., 1972 and Su et al., 2008). To explore the effects of glucoevatromonoside directly

on the host cells, a pretreatment assay was performed. This strategy has not shown to inhibit HSV-1 replication, suggesting that this compound did not present prophylactic effect in vitro. Next, Selleck Ceritinib HSV-1 and glucoevatromonoside were added to Vero cells simultaneously to investigate if it could interfere with the early stages of viral infection. This strategy has also not shown inhibit HSV replication suggesting that viral adsorption and penetration were not affected. To confirm these findings, viral attachment and penetration were individually investigated, and the results attested that glucoevatromonoside indeed did not affect these early stages, even when tested at 2 μM – 16 times higher than its IC50 (0.13 μM) – corroborating our results obtained during the Etoposide mouse simultaneous treatment and those by other authors ( Dodson et al., 2007 and Su et al., 2008). Fig. 3 shows a summary of these results. In order to detect in which stages of HSV replication cycle the glucoevatromonoside could be acting, time-of-addition and removal assays

were performed. As shown in Fig. 4, the anti-HSV-1 activity of glucoevatromonoside was preserved when added up to GNA12 12 h p.i. decreasing thereafter. Concordantly, when glucoevatromonoside was removed the activity significantly reduced up to12 h p.i. These data suggested that glucoevatromonoside should be added up to 12 h p.i. to affect the HSV replication. Since glucoevatromonoside inhibited HSV-1 at the first 12 h of its replication cycle, after viral attachment and penetration into the cells, the viral transcription was investigated through RT-PCR to determine if this process was impaired by this cardenolide affecting or not the HSV-1 gene expression. For the post-infection treatment, Vero cells were infected for 1 h, and then treated with glucoevatromonoside, acyclovir or a combination of both, during 6 and 12 h p.i. Fig. 5 shows the mRNA levels of UL54, UL52 and UL13 HSV genes, which are α, β and γ genes, respectively. The treatments with glucoevatromonoside (0.13 μM), acyclovir (5 μM) or a combination of both during 12 h p.i.

Although the renoprotective effect of ginseng components in diabe

Although the renoprotective effect of ginseng components in diabetic models has been reported, there are a few reports that have attempted to elucidate the changes of the podocyte cytoskeleton in diabetes. Recently, we reported that in vitro diabetic conditions induced the distributional change and suppressed the production of adaptor Dorsomorphin purchase proteins, such as ZO-1 [19], p130Cas [20], and β-catenin [21], thus causing the phenotypical changes and hyperpermeability of podocytes, which could be rescued by ginseng total saponin (GTS) [19], [20] and [21]. In this study, we investigated the effect of GTS on the pathological changes of podocyte cytoskeletal α-actinin-4, an important cytoskeletal

linker protein, induced by diabetic conditions. Conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes were kindly provided by Dr Peter Mundel (University of Harvard, Boston, MA, USA) and were cultured and differentiated as described previously check details [22]. Briefly, cells were cultivated at 33°C (permissive conditions) in a culture medium supplemented with 10 U/mL mouse recombinant γ-interferon (Roche, Mannheim, Germany) to induce the expression of temperature-sensitive large T antigens for proliferation. To induce differentiation, podocytes were maintained at 37°C without γ-interferon (non-permissive conditions) for at least 2 wk. Mouse podocytes were serum-deprived to reduce

the background of serum 24 h before each experiment. The podocytes were then exposed to glucose and/or AGEs. Cells were incubated in culture medium containing either 5mM glucose (normal glucose) or 30mM glucose (high glucose, HG) without insulin. AGEs were produced by a technique Orotidine 5′-phosphate decarboxylase previously described by Ha et al [23]. To imitate a long-term diabetic condition, AGEs were added (5 μg/mL) and controls were established using unmodified bovine serum albumin (5 μg/mL). To exclude the effect of additionally produced glycated proteins during culturing, incubation did not last longer than 48 h. For identification purposes, AGEs

and bovine serum albumin are denoted as A and B, and 5mM and 30mM glucose are denoted as 5 and 30, respectively. Briefly, B5 is normal, B30 is a short-term diabetic condition, A5 is a long-term normoglycemic or aged condition, and A30 is a long-term diabetic condition. For ginseng treatment, podocytes were incubated with GTS at various concentrations (0.2, 1, 5, 25 μg/mL) for 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h. GTS was kindly provided by the Korea Ginseng Corporation (Daejeon, Korea). Podocytes that were grown on type I collagen-coated glass cover slips incubated for 24 h were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, permeabilized in a phosphate buffer solution, blocked with 10% normal goat serum, and labeled with polyclonal goat antimouse α-actinin antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA).

On day 2 (the ‘observer session’), participants learned the value

On day 2 (the ‘observer session’), participants learned the values of a novel set of stimuli (stimulus

sets were balanced between sessions and across participants). We gave an instruction that this time participants would observe choices made previously by another participant, along with their associated outcomes. Participants were not provided with any information about this other participant, but were informed that these were real choices made by a different individual in a prior session. Participants were informed that, although they could learn from the outcomes OSI-906 in vitro of observed choices, these outcomes would not influence their own earnings for the observer session. Unknown to them, participants observed the sequence of choices they had made in their previous actor session, although now with visually novel stimuli. The two sessions were, therefore, matched in terms of the information from which they learned. Observer sessions were completed

on day 2 in order to reduce memory for previous choice sequence. To match for motor responses, observers indicated the observed choice on each trial with a button-press. Since learning could not be measured in these observation trials, because a free choice is not made, we introduced test trials to assess learning in both actors and observers. These comprised nine blocks of trials (test blocks) at regular intervals throughout learning. Here, free choices were made selleck chemicals llc by both actors and observers in the absence of outcome feedback (to prevent further learning). Fig. 1 illustrates exemplar learning and test trials and indicates the sole difference between actors and observers at the time of choice. Participants played a total of 324 trials per session (i.e. actor or observer). There were 12 trials in each of nine learning blocks, allowing

for six presentations of each stimulus per block. In learning blocks, each stimulus could be presented within any possible pairing (i.e. six possible pairings, Tideglusib each pair presented nine times, resulting in 54 presentations overall for each of the four stimuli). There were 24 trials in each of the nine test blocks, allowing for 12 presentations of each stimulus. Stimulus pairings in test blocks were restricted to those of 80/20, 80/60, 60/40 and 40/20 proportions, which allowed for three repetitions of each pair type per test block. While 80/20 stimuli have a large discrepancy in probability, 80/60, 60/40 and 40/20 are matched. By using two levels of probability discrepancy (i.e. not including 80/40 and 60/20 gamble pairs in test trials), we maximize power for distinguishing an effect of discrepancy while preserving power to examine learning effects for each choice pair. Stimulus pairs were presented in a random order. Trial sequence was identical across actor and observer sessions and all pairings had equal frequency.

Since the construction of the Xiaolangdi reservoir in 1999, the W

Since the construction of the Xiaolangdi reservoir in 1999, the WSM has become the most dominant signal for the Huanghe. Here, we focus on the special role of the WSM in regulating the delivery of Huanghe material to the sea.

The natural boundary between flood and non-flood seasons has been altered by the Xiaolangdi dam (Yang et al., 2008), although the monsoon still brings a majority of annual basin precipitation in the flood season. Instead, the annual WSM has become a human-made “high-water period” for the lower Huanghe. The WSM, despite its short duration, plays a vital role in delivering Huanghe water and sediment to the sea. The durations of WSM in 2002–2011 averaged ∼20 days every year, yet provided 27.6% and 48.9% of the annual PF-02341066 datasheet water and sediment delivery to the sea, respectively. Notably, the WSM releases only 27.6% of the annual

water discharge, yet the released water can carry 48.9% of the annual sediment flux to the sea. Moreover, the average suspended sediment concentration of Huanghe water during WSM was as high as 17.3 kg/m3, much higher than an average of 6.9 kg/m3 in other times of the year. The WSM has therefore become a dominant regime controlling the suspended sediment concentration, grain size, water and sediment fluxes to the sea. GDC-0199 cell line Although WSM has been regularly performed over the past decade, its regime was often modified, given its both positive and negative impacts on infilling of sediment in the Xiaolangdi reservoir, riverbed morphology, geological processes at the river mouth, and biological responses of the coastal environment. The timing and duration of these WSM-controlled “high flows” are irregular (Table 5). In 2005, for instance, WSM lasted 15 days

and produced only 0.61 × 108 t sediment (31.9% of the Dimethyl sulfoxide annual flux) delivered to the sea. In 2010, WSM was performed three times with a total duration of 38 days, resulting in the transport of up to 1.45 × 108 t sediment and 90.7 × 108 m3 water to the sea, which accounted for 86.8% and 47% of the annual flux to the sea, respectively. It is clear that the WSM regime is a major control on the annual water and sediment fluxes to the sea. Another uncertainty lies in the scouring of river-bed in the lower Huanghe, a complex process involving river flow, bed features, and human-interventions. Riverbed scouring provided an important source for the sediment flux to the sea, but relied heavily on the released floodwater from the Xiaolangdi dam. Sediment transport varies more than linearly with flow (Naik and Jay, 2011). This is also true for the Huanghe when WSM was performed. In 2004, the Xiaolangdi dam released 44.6 × 108 m3 of water during WSM, and 0.665 × 108 t of sediments were scoured. In 2009, however, the released 50 × 108 m3 of freshwater only scoured 0.343 × 108 t of sediment. During 2002–2004, water discharge released from the Xiaolangdi dam was controlled <3000 m3/s.