Strains in this group were usually negative for the DT104 determinant (98%) but positive for the sulfonamides resistance marker (sul1 gene). The class 1 integron marker (intI1) was never detected, though some Group A strains harbored the SGI1 determinant. Moreover, the beta-lactam resistance determinant TEM was present in three strains with A2 profiles. The major genotype A5 accounted
for 67% of Group A strains and was linked to the presence of all four SPI determinants and the plasmid-associated spvC determinant. A second profile, A9, occurred more frequently than the others, accounting for 24% of Group A strains. A5 and A9 genotypes were very Copanlisib clinical trial closely related as the A9 profile shared the A5 determinant profile, differing only by the absence of spvC. Both profiles were encountered every year in strains from various sources (STI571 purchase Figure 1 and Table 2). Group B was the largest, containing 276 strains. The 15 genotypes of Group B were distributed throughout the 10-year study period (1999-2009). The most common genotype was B6, detected in all types of sources and encountered SGC-CBP30 in 76% of Group B strains (n = 210). All determinants except the bla TEM gene were positive in this genotype. The other 14 profiles were much less frequent
(Table 2). Furthermore, 84% of Group B strains were positive for the DT104 marker. Group B strains consistently exhibited sul1 and intI1 determinants, whereas 88% of these strains (n = 244) carried the SGI1 left junction marker. As previously reported, the SGI1 left junction
region was not conserved among all isolates . Atypical profiles were detected in three strains, of which two were isolated from rabbit farms and feces. These 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase two strains were negative for the spi_4D determinant located on SPI-4 and assigned to the B14 profile. The third atypical strain, isolated from an eagle, was negative for the ssaQ marker and assigned to the B15 profile (Figure 1). Group C included 49 strains divided into 8 genotypes that were found throughout the study period. All strains from Group C were negative for sul1 marker. They were also negative for intI1 and SGI1 left junction determinants except for two intI1 positive strains (C1 and C3 profiles) isolated either from poultry or swine sources. Likewise, the DT104 marker was rare, observed in only 6.5% (n = 15) of Group C strains (Figure 1). Two other minor groups–D and E–were identified, each composed of a single strain. Genotypes derived from these groups were considered atypical and uncommon. Some SPI virulence genes were missing: ssaQ for the single Group D strain and both mgtC and spi4D for the Group E strain. Group D and E strains were both recovered from environmental samples, suggesting the presence of such atypical isolates in ecosystem niches (Figure 1 and Table 2).