The modified electrode showed an electrocatalytic response to the oxidation of etimicin, producing a sensitized
Quizartinib nmr ECL signal. The ECL sensor showed a linear response to etimicin in the range of 8.0-160.0 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 6.7 ng mL(-1). This method for etimicin determination possessed good sensitivity and reproducibility with a coefficient of variation of 5.1% (n = 7) at 100 ng mL(-1). The ECL sensor showed good selectivity and long-term stability. Its surface could be renewed quickly and reproducibly by a simple polish step. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Tuberculosis, an infectious disease which is curable by following a course of antibiotics, remains a major public health issue on a global scale. A therapeutic strategy has been standardised which calls for the use of four antibiotics. These are generally well-tolerated
but, individually and in combination, frequently have undesirable effects. Isoniazid may cause hepatic toxicity and an GSK2879552 cell line also be an asue of peripheral neuropathy. Rifampin is a strong hepatic enzyme inducer and can be responsible for severe immunoallergic reactions in the case of interrupted treatment. Pyrazinamide sometimes results in severe hepatotoxicity. Ethambutol can be responsible for severe ocular toxicity. Both older antituberculous medications and new generation antibiotic medications used for the treatment of resistant bacilli can also be the source of adverse events. The treatment of tuberculosis is standardised but the decision to treat it is inseparable from the evaluation of possible side effects which require assessment prior to the initiation of therapy and close monitoring during treatment selleckchem which includes ensuring that patients are aware of and vigilant for potential problems. This work describes the adverse events of different antibiotic medications so that, on an individual basis they can
be anticipated and appropriately managed. (C) 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Patients with Tuberculosis (TB) are a vulnerable group for acquiring HIV infection. Therefore, countries with a concentrated HIV epidemic and high prevalence of TB should provide adequate information about HIV prevention to TB patients. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the level of knowledge on HIV prevention and transmission among newly diagnosed TB patients in Lima, Peru. The survey evaluated knowledge about HIV infection and prevention and was administered before HIV counseling and blood sampling for HIV testing were performed. Results: A total of 171 TB patients were enrolled; mean age was 31.1 years, 101 (59%) were male. The overall mean level of knowledge of HIV was 59%; but the specific mean level of knowledge on HIV transmission and prevention was only 33.3% and 41.5%, respectively. Age and level of education correlated with overall level of knowledge in the multivariate model (P-value: 0.02 and smaller than 0.
More effective and earlier smoking cessation interventions are required for particularly disadvantaged groups.”
“Background: C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) has been implicated in the invasiveness and metastasis of diverse cancers. However, the published data remain controversial on the correlation between CXCR4 expression level, as well
as its subcellular selleck chemical distribution in tumor cells, and the clinical outcome of patients with breast cancer. Methods: To identify the precise role of CXCR4 in the clinical outcome of breast cancer, we performed a meta-analysis including 15 published studies. Original data included the hazard ratios (HRs) of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in breast cancer with high CXCR4 expression versus low expression. We
pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate the hazard. Results: A total of 15 published studies (including 3104 patients) were eligible. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of breast cancer were found to be significantly related to CXCR4 expression level, with the HR being 1.65 (95% CI: 1.34-2.03; P < 0.00001) and 1.94 (95% CI: 1.42-2.65; P < 0.00001) respectively. Stratified analysis according to subcellular distribution of CXCR4 showed that high expression in whole selleck chemicals llc cells, cytoplasm and nucleus could predict unfavorable OS, with the HR of 2.02 (95% CI: 1.43-2.85; P < 0.0001), 1.57 (95% CI: 1.13-2.18; P = 0.007), and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.19-1.81; P = 0.0004) respectively. As for DFS, elevated expression level of CXCR4 both in whole cells and cytoplasm predicted a poor outcome,
with the HR being 2.23 (95% CI: 1.48-3.37; P = 0.0001) and 1.76 (95% CI: 1.11-2.80; P = 0.02), while high expression in the nucleus had no statistical significance, with HR 1.15 (95% CI: 0.52-2.55; P = 0.73). Conclusions: Increased CXCR4 expression, especially in whole cells and cytoplasm, may serve as a poor prognostic PRIMA-1MET indicator in patients with breast cancer. Future studies are warranted to investigate the relationship between CXCR4 expression and survival of patients with breast carcinoma, which could help predict the clinical outcome and guide clinical decision-making for therapy. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In this article, Monte Carlo method is used to study the characteristics of gallium nitride (GaN). Impact ionization is treated as an additional scattering mechanism, which is described by the Keldysh formula with the parameters determined by fitting the simulated results to the numerical calculation results. Based on simplified model, results of velocity overshoot and impact ionization rate of both carriers are calculated and analyzed. In addition, we get the device characteristics associated with impact ionization, i.e., gain, noise, and bandwidth (both electron- and hole-injected cases), which is compared to the reported experimental data and conventional theories.
The need to inform pig farmers about biological occupational risks is therefore crucial.”
“The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize virosome containing envelope proteins of the
avian influenza (H5N1) virus. The virosome was prepared by the solubilization of virus with octaethyleneglycol mono (n-dodecyl) ether (C12E8) followed by detergent removal with SM2 Bio-Beads. Biochemical analysis by SDS-PAGE and western blotting, indicated that avian influenza selleck inhibitor H5N1 virosome had similar characteristics to the parent virus and contained both the hemagglutinin (HA, 60-75 kDa) and neuraminidase (NA, 220 kDa) protein, with preserved biological activity, such as hemagglutination activity. The virosome structure was analyzed by negative
stained transmission electron microscope (TEM) demonstrated that the spherical shapes of vesicles with surface glycoprotein spikes were harbored. In conclusion, the biophysical properties of the virosome Screening Library solubility dmso were similar to the parent virus, and the use of octaethyleneglycol mono (n-dodecyl) ether to solubilize viral membrane, followed by removal of detergent using polymer beads adsorption (BioBeads SM2) was the preferable method for obtaining avian influenza virosome. The outcome of this study might be useful for further development veterinary virus vaccines. (C) 2013 PVJ. All rights reserved”
“QuestionIncreasing population pressure, socio-economic development and associated natural BMS-777607 cost resource use in savannas are resulting in large-scale land cover changes, which can be mapped using remote sensing. Is a three-dimensional (3D) woody vegetation
structural classification applied to LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data better than a 2D analysis to investigate change in fine-scale woody vegetation structure over 2yrs in a protected area (PA) and a communal rangeland (CR)? LocationBushbuckridge Municipality and Sabi Sand Wildtuin, NE South Africa. MethodsAirborne LiDAR data were collected over 3300ha in April 2008 and 2010. Individual tree canopies were identified using object-based image analysis and classified into four height classes: 1-3, 3-6, 6-10 and bigger than 10m. Four structural metrics were calculated for 0.25-ha grid cells: canopy cover, number of canopy layers present, cohesion and number of height classes present. The relationship between top-of-canopy cover and sub-canopy cover was investigated using regression. Gains, losses and persistence (GLP) of cover at each height class and the four structural metrics were calculated. GLP of clusters of each structural metric (calculated using LISA – Local Indicators of Spatial Association – statistics) were used to assess the changes in clusters of each metric over time. ResultsTop-of-canopy cover was not a good predictor of sub-canopy cover.
55-3.75, P < 0.001), OAB-dry (3.55-3.68 P < 0.005), VD (3.81-3.95, P < 0.005), and suspected ISD (3.63-3.92, P < 0.001). Increased confidence after UDS was not associated with higher odds of treatment success although mean changes in confidence were slightly higher for those who achieved treatment success. Physician diagnoses shifted more from not confident to confident CHIR98014 for ISD and OAB-wet after UDS (McNemar’s P-value <0.001 for both).\n\nConclusions\n\nIn women undergoing UDS for predominant SUI, UDS increased physicians’ confidence in their clinical diagnoses; however, this did not correlate
with treatment success. Neurourol. Urodynam. 33:302-306, 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Somatic growth rates are critical to the population dynamics of long-lived ectotherms. While the von Bertalanffy (VB) growth curve has been used extensively to model growth of such animals, the conventional form of the model fails to account for individual variation or for changes in resource allocation after sexual maturation.
Bayesian modelling has recently been used in fisheries research to fit a modification of the VB model that is both hierarchical (allowing individual variation in growth parameters) and biphasic (allowing an age-specific change in growth rate). We extend this approach by developing a range of hierarchical biphasic AZD1480 models allowing a size- rather than age-dependent change of one or more growth parameters in one or both sexes. We applied the approach to a long-term data set of growth measurements for snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina), as data on nesting status show females begin nesting predictably at about 24 cm carapace length. The data consisted of 1996 carapace-length measurements taken from 1972 to 2005 in Algonquin Park, Canada, from 317 individual turtles. These included 24 turtles of known age, most of which were juveniles of unknown sex, and 293 turtles of unknown age, most of which were adults of known sex. The modelling revealed substantial individual variation in both the asymptotic size (a) and growth rate (k) parameter,
and clear evidence of biphasic growth. The model that best explained the data (based on DIC) was that males and females BAY 73-4506 grow similarly until they reach 24 cm, after which females shift trajectory towards a reduced asymptotic size target. The number of years taken to reach 24 cm was estimated to range from 11 to 44 years in 95% of individuals, with asymptotic size ranging from 38.2 to 40.9 in males and 31.0 to 33.6 in females. Our approach is applicable to a range of long-lived ectotherms likely to have size-dependent biphasic growth, and provides essential information for modelling the long-term dynamics of populations under threat. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In elderly patients, opioids may cause prominent postoperative sedation and respiratory depression.
Propofol (a probe substrate of UGT1A9) and 3′-azido-3′-deoxythimidine (AZT, a probe substrate of UGT2B7) were
employed as representative xenobiotics. The results showed that gossypol noncompetitively inhibits UGT-mediated estradiol-3-glucuronidation and propofol O-glucuronidation, and the inhibition kinetic parameters (K-i) were calculated to be 34.2 and 16.4 mu M, respectively. Gossypol was demonstrated to exhibit competitive inhibition towards UGT-mediated AZT glucuronidation, and the inhibition kinetic parameter (K-i) was determined to be 14.0 mu M. All these results indicated that gossypol might induce metabolic disorders of endogenous substances and alteration of metabolic behaviour of co-administered xenobiotics through inhibition of UGTs’ activity.”
“OBJECTIVES: To explore the potentials of microcirculatory assessments for predicting outcome of patients treated with see more extra corporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiogenic shock. METHODS: Eight patients with acute cardiogenic shock treated with ECMO and eight healthy controls were examined with skin vital microscopy and laser Doppler perfusion
measurements. RESULTS: Three patients died on ECMO (group 1). Five patients were successfully weaned off ECMO (group 2). Four patients were discharged from hospital and one died after successful weaning from bleeding complications. Patients surviving ECMO (group 2) had microcirculatory findings comparable with healthy controls. Patients in group 1 showed major skin microvascular pathology: Selleck ZD1839 pericapillary bleedings (n = 1), pericapillary dark haloes (n = 2) and capillary micro thrombi (n = 1). As compared with survivors they had lower functional capillary density (FCD) (n Rabusertib concentration = 3), higher heterogeneity of functional capillary density (n = 3) and significantly reduced capillary mean flow-categorical velocity (n = 2). Laser Doppler measurements in group
1 had non-significant lower laser Doppler flux values as compared with survivors and controls. CONCLUSION: Skin microvascular pathology as detected with video microscopy (pericapillary bleedings or haloes, microthrombi/capillaries with “no flow”, low FCD with high spatial distribution heterogeneity or low mean flow-categorial velocity) seems to be associated with poor prognosis.”
“Objective: The current study examines associations between five factor personality traits and average sleep duration, sleep deficiency, and sleep problems. Method: The participants were from two population-based samples from Australia (n = 1,104, age range 31-41) and Finland (n = 1,623, age range 30-45). Self-reports of sleep behavior, sleep problems (Jenkin’s scale), and five factor model personality traits (NEO-FFI) were collected. Associations between personality traits and sleep were analyzed with linear regressions.
Our a-priori hypothesis was that GSI-IX Proteases inhibitor schizophrenia patients would show an increased prevalence of the nontaster phenotype compared with controls. The genotypes of two nonsynonymous coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms in TAS2R38 were assayed for 176 schizophrenia patients and 229 healthy control individuals, and the two-allele haplotypes were estimated. There was an over-representation of the major PTC nontaster haplotype among patients of European descent, relative to control individuals of similar ancestry.
Patients and controls of African ancestry did not differ. The PTC nontaster haplotype is a genetic marker that may be used to identify subsets of schizophrenia patients who potentially harbor vulnerability genes in this region of chromosome 7q. Psychiatr Genet 22:286-289 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Chagas disease is a major endemic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This parasitic disease is widely distributed throughout Latin America, affecting 10 million people. There are also reports of canine infection in the southern part of the United States. Dogs are considered the predominant domestic reservoir for 7: cruzi in many
areas of endemicity. In Mexico, click here dog infection by this parasite has been poorly studied. In this work 209 dogs from six villages in Jalisco, Mexico, were assessed to detect anti-T cruzi antibodies by ELISA and Western blot. Seventeen (17) seropositive dogs (8.1 %) were detected by both tests, representing a seropositive value similar to that found in some southern states of Mexico where the infection is present. No statistical differences were observed concerning the age and sex of infected and non-infected dogs. The major antigens recognized by positive sera were 26, 32, 66 and 80 kDa. These proteins are candidates to develop a specific diagnostic method for canine Chagas.
No antibodies against HSP16 protein were found in 7: cruzi seropositive sera. This is the first report of canine serology of Chagas disease in this central part of Mexico. This report will contribute to the knowledge of the infection status of domestic reservoirs in AL3818 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor the state of Jalisco, Mexico. (C) 2014 Asociacion Argentina de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Slug, a regulator of epithelial mesenchymal transition, was identified to be differentially expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) using cDNA microarrays by our laboratory. This study aimed to determine the clinical significance of Slug overexpression in ESCC and determine its correlation with clinicopathological parameters and disease prognosis for ESCC patients.
This review discusses the efficacy of the AIs in improving DDFS in the different adjuvant settings and explores whether significant improvements in DDFS correlate with meaningful improvements in OS or breast cancer-associated mortality. Significant DDFS improvement may be a Tariquidar Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor quicker, better end point in clinical trials, leading to a more efficient, faster assessment of treatment efficacy.”
“Two strains of Arcobacter butzleri, ATCC 49616 and an
environmental isolate, became nonculturable in seawater microcosms at 4 C by 20 days and at room temperature by 14 days. Nonculturable cells were viable for up to 270 days of incubation in microcosms. Resuscitation of A. butzleri cells from microcosms at both temperatures was achieved 9 days after nutrient addition.”
“For the efficient stimulation of T cells by tumor Ag, tumor-derived material has to be presented by dendritic cells (DC). This very likely involves the uptake of dead tumor cells by DC. Cell death in tumors often occurs through
apoptosis, but necrotic cell death may also be prevalent. This distinction is relevant because numerous studies have proposed that apoptotic cells have immunosuppressive effects while necrosis may be stimulatory. However, a system has been lacking that would allow the induction of apoptosis or necrosis without side effects by the death stimuli used experimentally. In this study, we present such a system
and test its effects on immune cells in vitro. B16 mouse melanoma cells Nepicastat research buy were generated and underwent cell death through the doxycycline-inducible induction of death proteins. In one cell line, the induction of Bim(S), induced rapid apoptosis, in the other line the induction of the FADD death domain induced nonapoptotic/necrotic cell death. Bim(S)-induced apoptosis was associated with the typical morphological and biochemical changes. FADD death domain induced necrosis occurred through a distinct pathway involving RIP1 and the loss of membrane integrity in the absence of apoptotic changes. Apoptotic and necrotic cells were taken up with comparable efficiency by DC. OVA expressed in cells dying by either apoptosis or necrosis was cross-presented to OT-1 T cells and induced their VX-770 proliferation. These results argue that it is not the form of cell death but its circumstances that decide the question whether cell death leads to a productive T cell response. The Journal of Immunology, 2009, 182: 4538-4546.”
“Objectives: We investigated the outcomes of reinforcing anastomotic sites using (1) non biodegradable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) felt, (2) biodegradable polyglycolic acid (PGA) felt, and (3) PGA felt with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in a canine descending thoracic aortic replacement model.
At the same time, the overall structure is similar to that of a semidilute polymer solution, with polycations and polyanions strongly overlapping to form a network with a mesh size that is much smaller than the radius of gyration of the polymers. The mesh size decreases with decreasing salt concentration, following a scaling that is in good agreement with predictions this website from the corresponding salt polymer phase diagram. These findings
are confirmed by complementary X-ray scattering experiments. Finally, in all scattering experiments with light, X-rays, and neutrons, and for all polymer chain lengths and salt concentrations, we find a remarkable low-q excess scattering, following a power law with a slope close to -2. This points to the
presence of equilibrium, large-scale density fluctuations in the complex coacervates. Dynamic light scattering experiments reveal two complementary diffusive modes in the complex coacervates, corresponding to fluctuations of the polymer mesh and diffusion of domains of varying density, respectively.”
“PEMA- and eugenol-based trial agents (PE 1.0, PE 1.6) possessed the requisite dental engineering properties that, satisfied DMH1 the requirements for temporary luting agents. To assess their clinical applicability. this study examined the following properties after the trial agents were removed: their residue ratios on the abutment surface and the bond strengths of resin-modified glass ionomer cement and resin cement for the abutment materials. The residue ratio of PE
1.0 on the abutment material after temporary restoration removal was lower than those of comparable temporary luting agents (polycarboxylate cement type, zinc oxide-eugenol cement type), and no residue was recognized for PE 1.6. On bond strength, those of the resin-modified glass ionomer cement and resin cement. for the resin core and bovine dentin surface after the removal of trial agents tended to be the same or increase in comparison to commercial temporary luting agents. In Conclusion. results of this study suggested that the trial agents were suitable for clinical use.”
“A real-time TaqMan PCR assay based on the gene encoding the protein p37 was developed to detect Mycoplasma hyorhinis. Its specificity learn more was validated with 29 epidemiologically unrelated M. hyorhinis strains (28 field strains and one reference strain) and other mycoplasma species or with other microorganisms commonly found in pigs. The estimated detection limit of this qPCR assay was 125 microorganism equivalents/mu l. The same 29 epidemiologically unrelated M. hyorhinis strains and four previously fully sequenced strains were typed by two portable typing methods, the sequencing of the p37 gene and a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. The first method revealed 18 distinct nucleotide sequences and insufficient discriminatory power (0.934). The MLST scheme was developed with the sequenced genomes of the M.
“Methanol extracts of the roots of B. brevissima and B. parkeriana were examined for antidiabetic and antimicrobial activities. Six compounds i.e berberine, 8-oxo-berberine, dehydrocheilanthifoline, columbamine, AZD8931 manufacturer jatrorrhizine and glutamic acid were isolated from the active fractions of these species for the first time. The antidiabetic activity was determined against Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP 1B), a negative insulin regulator while the antimicrobial activity was
performed against four bacterial strains: Mycobacterium marinum ATCC BAA535, sporadic Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SMRSA), endemic Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (EMRSA) and Escherichia coli ATCC. 8739 at different concentrations. Amongst the isolated compounds 8-oxo-berberine was found to be the most active Ricolinostat ic50 antidiabetic (29 % of the positive control) while jatrorrhizine was the most active and selective antimicrobial against SMRSA and EMRSA (-1.2 % of the DMSO (D) control).”
“It was reported the occurrence of Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) as a parasitoid of pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae) and Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae) in the extreme Southern of Brazil.
The collection of pupae was performed in January and February, 2008. The pupae of M. domestica and S. calcitrans were collected from bovine feces using the flotation method. The pupae were individualized in glass tubes and maintained in acclimatized chamber
at 27 +/- 2 degrees C with relative air humidity >= 70% until the emergence of the flies or the parasitoids. The referred occurrence consists in the first report to Rio Grande do Sul.”
“Thoma Ionescu. the distinguished surgeon and anatomist, is rightly considered the founder of the Romanian school of sugery and topographic anatomy whose achievements became well-known in Europe and North America. fie introduced several new surgical techniques, as wall as rachianaesthesia, and identified and formulated Selleck HM781-36B the main principles of rectal and uterine oncologic surgery. Moreover, he was the first to describe the paraduodenal fossae and the internal retroperitoneal hernias. His other contributions consisted of studies on the effects of cervical sympathectomy and, obviously, the development of experimental surgery.”
“Epidemiological data of Bordetella pertussis infection among adolescents and adults are limited in Korea. Patients ( bigger than = 11 yr of age) with a bothersome cough for less than 30 days were enrolled during a 1-yr period at 22 hospitals in Korea. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for bacteriologic culture. In total, 490 patients were finally enrolled, and 34 (6.9%) patients tested positive for B. pertussis; cough duration (14.0 days [7.0-21.0 days]) and age distribution were diverse.
p values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.\n\nThe LSSPAD group comprised 38 GSK1838705A price patients (6.7 %); 20 (3.5 %) had pre-diagnosised PAD while 18 (3.2 %) had undetected
PAD. The clinical characteristics of these patients were advanced age, diabetes, and a history of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disorder. 570 patients enrolled, and 448 (78.6 %) of those patients were followed up at three months after enrollment. Pain in buttocks and legs improved less in the LSSPAD group than in the LSS group (p < 0.05). Improvements in the “general health” score in SF-36 were lower in the LSSPAD group than in the LSS group (p < 0.05).\n\nAdvanced age, diabetes, and a history of cerebrovascular disorder and ischemic heart disease were associated with LSSPAD. Because LSSPAD patients show less improvement in QOL than patients with LSS but without PAD do, clinicians should consider the coexistence of PAD in LSS patients.”
“Genotoxicity of pressmud (PM) to Allium cepa was investigated to assess its toxic potential and to elucidate the effect of vermicomposting to reduce its
toxicity. The PM produced as a waste by product of the sugar cane industry was mixed with cow dung (CD) at different ratios of 0:100 (V-0), 25:75 (V-25), 50:50 (V-50), 75:25 (V-75) and 100:0 (V-100) (PM:CD) on a dry weight basis for vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida. Different concentrations of 100 % PM sludge extract (10 %, 20 %, 40 S3I-201 mouse %, 60 %, 80 % and 100 %) and negative control (distilled
water) and positive control (maleic hydrazide) were analyzed with A. cepa assay to evaluate frequency of chromosomal aberrations before and after vermicomposting. Percent aberration was greatest (30.8 %) after exposure to 100 % PM extract after 6 h GANT61 solubility dmso but was reduced to 20.3 % after vermicomposting. Exposure to the extract induced c-mitosis, delayed anaphase, laggards, stickiness and vagrant aberrations. Microscopic examination of root meristem exposed to PM sludge extract showed significant inhibition of mitotic index. Also, the mitotic index decreased with increase in concentration of PM sludge extract. After vermicomposting the mitotic index was increased. However, increasing percentages of PM significantly affected the growth and fecundity of the worms and maximum population size was reached in the 25:75 (PM:CD) feed mixture. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, electrical conductivity (EC) and pH increased from initial feed mixture to the final products (i.e., vermicompost), while organic carbon, C/N ratio and potassium declined in all products of vermicomposting. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was recorded to identify the changes in texture with numerous surface irregularities and high porosity that proves to be good vermicompost manure.