As well as providing information that may clearly be of value in

As well as providing information that may clearly be of value in a clinical setting in the

form of classification accuracy, which communicates the level of confidence we can have in the predictions made by this type of analysis, these “braindecoding” methods can also produce maps which indicate the levels to which different brain regions are involved in the classification accuracy that has been achieved. However, here a note of caution is in order. Unlike the maps produced by the more commonly used mass- univariate methods which can be unequivocally- interpreted in terms of the size of the effect (eg, difference in response between groups) at each voxel, the maps produced by the machine Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical learning methods explicitly contain the effects of interactions between voxels or brain regions. In other words, a particular voxel could be important in distinguishing two groups either because there is a large Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical difference in function or structure at that point or because

there is a small difference that is highly correlated with those in many other brain regions, gaining importance from these correlations. There are two main consequences arising from this. The first is that the maps may be inherently more sensitive in depicting effects than those that we may be CB-839 in vitro accustomed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to seeing (though this is debated and is still undergoing detailed study). The second is that, unlike univariate maps, that can be subjected to statistical thresholding at a particular P value, thresholding these multivariate maps is more challenging, and the most effective way to accomplish this is an active area of investigation. To Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical summarize the above discussion, both the mass-uni variate and multivariate “brain reading” methods of analyzing MRI data can give information about the location of disease-related changes in structure or function. The univariate methods are in fact easier

to interpret, but may be less sensitive in detecting small changes to distributed systems. Few would argue, however, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that if properly carried out, both approaches can potentially produce useful maps. It is valuable at this point, however, to consider the relationship between producing a reliable map and establishing a usable biomarker for a psychiatric illness. The concept of a biomarker contains within it the idea of classification. Methisazone It associates a pattern of changes in brain structure or function with a particular mental state. This is in fact the core idea of the “brain-reading” methodologies, as stated above. However, without knowledge of the classification accuracy associated with the map of brain changes, the map itself has little value. In a distinction between two classes, a random allocation process would produce a classification accuracy of 50%.

Study of physico–chemical properties

was carried out in o

Study of physico–chemical properties

was carried out in order to standardize the formulations. Generally the formulations may be in the form of solid, liquid or gel. Among these gels formulation is more preferred since it is easy to handle and safe and also have few inhibitors advantages like they have localized effect with slight side effects.1, 2 and 3 Root canal lubricants in the form of gel were used during root canal lubrication for easier penetration of an instrument in root canal preparation. In order to judge a quality of root canal lubricant it is essential to determine its physico–chemical properties.4 click here Several experimental studies have indicated that, number Sorafenib order of generally available lubricants solution or gel is not effective in complete removal of soft and hard organic or inorganic materials at a time.5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 The idea of study of physico–chemical properties came from surface tension of root canal irrigant in order to standardize the formulation.11 Materials required for the study

of physico–chemical properties are purchased from Earth Chemicals, Mumbai made up of Merck Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. The physico–chemical properties of various concentrations of self developed root canal lubricant gel includes appearance, Solid content, 5% aqueous solution pH, moisture content, viscosity and 5% aqueous solution stability in water etc. Appearance of the gel observed physically by eyes. Solid content was determined by heating the gels in an electrical oven. 5% aqueous solution pH was determined using pH metre.

Moisture content in the gel was found out using Karl Fischer’s apparatus. Viscosity was analysed using B. F. Viscometer. The 5% aqueous solution stability is tested in cylinder. The appearance of formulation was observed visually with the help of naked eyes. The formulation is in the form of stable thixotropic gel. It has been observed that, viscosity of gel increases as concentration of active content of gel increases. In order to determine solid content a known quantity of gel was heated in an oven at 110 °C for 3 h or still constant weight is obtained. Exactly 1 g of sample of gel was heated at 110 °C for 3 h or till already constant weight is obtained. The process of heating, cooling and weighing is continued till constant weight is obtained. Loss in weight was determined and from loss in weight, solid content was measured and listed in Table 1 and as shown in Fig. 1. 5% aqueous solution pH of the various concentration of gel was determined using digital pH metre having model no. CL – 280 made up of Labline Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Exactly 2 g self developed root canal lubricant gel was dissolved in 40 ml of distilled water and stored for 3 h.

Substitutions in evolutionarily well-conserved amino acids among

Substitutions in evolutionarily well-conserved amino acids among homologous proteins in different species are excellent candidates for pathogenic

mutations. Mutations that are predicted to alter the function of the protein or have been experimentally demonstrated to do so are excellent candidates. Certain mutations need to be tested in model organisms Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in order to study their effect. Other mutations require long-term epidemiological studies to prove their involvement with a disease phenotype. The study of the molecular basis of the disease phenotype in unrelated pedigrees and the demonstration of mutations in the same gene often confirm the involvement of this gene in the disease. The description of studies to elucidate the function of the disease-related protein and the pathogenetic mechanism of the disease is beyond the scope of this article. It is, however, important to emphasize that the evolutionary conservation of genes makes model organisms (yeast, worm, fruitfly, zebrafish, or mouse) indispensable tools for the functional Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical analysis of human genes. The methodology described above for gene cloning responsible for monogenic disorders

has been repeatedly successful.2 A considerable number of diseaserelated genes and alleles Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical have been identified in the last 15 years. The OMIM contains 1168 genes with mutant alleles associated with disease phenotypes. Most of these have been identified using positional cloning efforts without any previous knowledge Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the biochemistry or pathophysiology of the disease phenotype. Functional gene variants for predisposition to common, complex, phenotypes One of the greatest challenges of this decade for biomedicine is to identify the mutant/polymorphic alleles that cause or predispose to common human disorders with a strong genetic component. It is not far from the truth if we state that the entire effort for the mapping, sequencing, and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical determination of the mTOR inhibitor normal variability of our genome has been done in order to be able to find the mutant alleles of the common, complex phenotypes. These phenotypes include

disorders such as Calpain schizophrenia and bipolar disease, diabetes, asthma, atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, obesity, hypertension, Alzheimer’s disease, aging, and susceptibility to infectious diseases. The tasks appear enormous, but the expected benefits for medicine could be so profound that are certainly worth the effort and expenses from both academia and industry. The discovery of predisposing mutant alleles for common disorders is nevertheless very difficult. Although we do not understand all the reasons for this difficulty, we could certainly mention the following points. First, the inheritance of the common complex phenotypes is not clearly mendelian. It is true that there is an aggregation of affected individuals in certain families, but the mode of inheritance is not compatible with the usual recognizable patterns.

Moreover, several prospective data demonstrate an association bet

Moreover, several prospective data demonstrate an association between consumption of dietary antioxidants and reduced incidence of dementia. The data do not point to a single antioxidant but rather to a diet such as the Mediterranean diet, which is low in saturated fats and rich in fish, olive oil, and vegetables, particularly leafy ones which contain

vitamin E. Other sources of data confirm that dietary vitamin E,but not supplements, are key to this beneficial effect.23 Another important source of antioxidants can be red wine, and although several studies confirm the beneficial effect of wine if consumed in moderation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (approximately 1 glass per day), no study has demonstrated an advantage of red wine over other alcoholic drinks. One important caveat is the fact that all the abovementioned risk factors (Table I) act during midlife, rather than at an advanced age. This establishes a “window of opportunity” during which the interventions must be used. Apparently once the pathological Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical process is fullyactive, interventions might not be effective any more. Table I Midlife factors associated with development of dementia in old age. Why is it so difficult to accumulate supporting evidence on the protective effects of antihypertensive or choles terol-lowering drugs against dementia? Firstly, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical it is unethical to perform placebo-controlled studies on the treatment of these

disorders in people who are hypertensive or hypercholesterolemia Syst-Eur was possible only because at the time there was no consensus as to whether systolic hypertension per se should be treated in the elderly. In addition, such studies are long and costly, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and thus not appealing to investigators and financing agencies. Strictly speaking, the results of Syst-Eur only applyto treatment of systolic hypertension in the elderly where we are allowed to assume that it will result in reduced incidence of dementia. Although it is logical to extrapolate these results to younger

people, or those with more severe forms of hypertension, technically an effect in these situations has not Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical been proven. Obesity has also been associated with the occurrence of dementia.10 Of course, no randomized almost studies can ever be performed to establish whether prevention (or treatment) of obesity can reduce the incidence of dementia. Similarly, no class I evidence will ever demonstrate whether physical or intellectual activities, wine drinking or cessation of smoking in midlife can either singly or in combination affect the incidence of dementia several decades later. Nevertheless, nobody is likely to contest the idea that overweight or smoking are bad for health in general, and therefore attempts to reduce obesity and to stop smoking are promoted by physicians even without referring to the cognitive aspects. It is with this view that we have to Fulvestrant mouse approach the other risk factors mentioned above.

Competing interests The author(s) declare that they have no compe

Competing interests The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions DE carried out all statistical analyses and drafted the manuscript. JN led data collection and assisted in study conceptualization. MC participated in data collection and cleaning, and participated in hypothesis generation. PW was involved in all stages from conceptualization to interpretation of data analyses, and contributed significantly Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to writing of all sections of the manuscript. KD is the PI of the parent study, served as senior author and

oversaw all steps of manuscript preparation with DE. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Pre-publication history The pre-publication history for this Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical paper can be accessed here: Acknowledgements This work was supported by Grant HL-088117 from the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of NCRR or NIH. Dr. Edmondson is supported by grant

KM1 CA-156709. The funders had no role in the design, collection, analysis, or Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; or in the decision to submit the manuscript Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for publication.
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) result in almost 17 000 emergency department (ED) visits per year in Sweden and account for more than 1 million ED

visits each year in both the United States of America and the United Kingdom [1-3]. Most of them (up to 95%) are classified as mild head injuries (MHI) [4], commonly defined as a head trauma Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with short loss of consciousness (LOC) or amnesia for the accident, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 14–15 and no find more neurological deficits at the time of medical inspection. These patients have been notoriously difficult to manage since they have a low, but not negligible, risk of an intracranial complication, which may be life threatening [5]. Pathological computed tomography (CT) results after MHI are found in 0.5-20% of Phosphoprotein phosphatase patients (0-8% for significant complications) and the need for neurosurgical intervention is between 0-1% [6]. Scandinavian guidelines for management of minimal, mild and moderate head injuries were presented by the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee (SNC) in the year 2000 [1]. For patients with GCS 14–15 and LOC and/or amnesia, these guidelines recommend head CT or, as a secondary option, hospital admission with clinical observation. Similar guidelines have been published from other groups [7-9] and all have the same goal; to stratify patients with MHI into risk groups for intracranial complications.

Exclusion criteria were other neuromuscular pathology in the hand

Exclusion criteria were other neuromuscular pathology in the hand (eg, De Quervain’s tenosynovitis, trigger finger), surgical interventions on the carpometacarpal joint, a Beck Depression Inventory score of more than 4 (Wang et al 2005), a State

Trait Anxiety Inventory score of 30 or more (Antunes et al 2005), or any neurological condition in which pain perception was altered (Wajon and Ada 2005). Both interventions were applied by an experienced physiotherapist with a 4-year post-graduate certificate in manual therapy and 11 years of experience in the management of musculoskeletal pain disorders. The experimental group received a neurodynamic nerve slider technique targeted to the radial nerve over the symptomatic hand for 6 sessions over 4 weeks. The technique was applied with the patient positioned in Libraries supine and the physiotherapist seated. The technique involved alternating the following two movements: shoulder HKI-272 order depression applied simultaneously with elbow flexion and wrist extension; and shoulder elevation simultaneously with elbow Selleck CX-5461 extension, wrist flexion, and ulnar deviation. These movements were alternated at a rate of approximately 2 seconds per cycle (1 second into extension and 1 second into flexion). This technique is intended to produce a sliding movement of neural structures in relation to their adjacent

tissues. Speed and amplitude of movement were adjusted such that no pain was produced. At each session, the technique was applied 3 times for 3 min separated by 1-min rest periods. Participants in the control group received a sham dose of intermittent ultrasound therapy to the thumb region for 10 minutes for 6 sessions over 4 weeks. Further detail of each intervention is available in the primary report of this trial (Villafañe et al 2012a). Pressure pain threshold is a quantitative sensory test of

tissue sensitivity and it is defined as the minimal amount of pressure that produces pain, measured via a pressure algometer (Ylinen 2007). Pressure pain thresholds near to the pathological site are thought to represent the degree of peripheral nociception, whereas pressure pain thresholds distant to the pathology are a marker of central nervous system hyper-excitability (Kamper et al 2011). The validity much and reproducibility of algometry has been described, with higher pressure pain thresholds indicating lower pain sensitivity (Fischer 1987). Pressure pain threshold was measured contralaterally over the lateral epicondyle, thumb carpometacarpal joint at the anatomical snuffbox, the tubercle of the scaphoid bone, and the unciform apophysis of the hamate bone. The pressure applied was increased by approximately 0.1 kg/cm2 each second until the onset of pain. Three measurements were obtained from each point and the mean was used for statistical analysis. A 1-min rest period was allowed between each measurement.

0 compared to a pH of 7 0 In their study, all the Quinolones exh

0 compared to a pH of 7.0. In their study, all the Quinolones exhibited very low bactericidal activities against the 21 tested strains, regardless of the pH, with a MBC90s (minimal bactericidal concentration) of ≥8 mg/liter. In addition, Akova et al.20 revealed that only rifampicin and doxycycline retained sufficient activity against Brucella at a pH of 5.0, in contrast to the other tested antibiotics. The authors showed that the rifampicin activity increased two to eightfold at the acidic pH. Antibiotic combination studies have revealed an absence of synergism between Quinolones and other antibiotics against Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical B. melitensis.22,23 Akova et al.20 studied the combination of ofloxacin-rifampicin

against 20 isolates Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical at pH 7.0 and 5.0 and found antagonism in 17 isolates and indifference in 3 isolates at pH 7.0. In contrast, at pH 5.0, this combination exhibited antagonism, indifference, additive effects, and synergy in 7, 8, 1, and 4 isolates, respectively. The combination of rifampicin-doxycycline was found to be the most synergistic. On the hand, and in their efforts to evaluate the susceptibility of B. melitensis against several antibiotics,

Qadri et al.24 reported cross-resistance of B. melitensis isolates to all Quinolones noted after therapy with ciprofloxacin. A good activity of ciprofloxacin has been reported in many in vitro studies.25,26 In addition, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Baykam et al.27 in a study performed in Turkey and Dimitrov et al.28 in a study performed in AL Kuwait28 found that all their isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, but 9.6%

and 8% of the isolates were resistant to rifampicin in vitro, respectively. In our study, we detected no differences regarding the individual antibiotic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical activity when we tested ciprofloxacin (MICrange: 0.125-8 μg/ml at both pH levels) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or sparfloxacin (MICrange: 0.125-4 μg/ml at pH 7.0, and 0.25-4 μg/ml at pH 5.0) against the Brucella isolates from any Syrian SB203580 in vitro region at either pH value. At pH 5.0, the tetracycline activity was reduced in the Central region isolates and its susceptibility in the Southern region was decreased at pH 5.0 compared with that at pH 7.0 (P<0.0007). The rifampicin activity was very low in the Coastal and the Northern regions at both pH levels (MICrange: 32-64 μg/ml). In addition, rifampicin-resistant isolates were observed in these two regions (18 and 28 resistant isolates, respectively). However, one of the most unexpected results Sitaxentan in this study was the very poor activity of streptomycin against all the Brucella isolates (MICrange>128 μg/ml), which has not been published previously.20,22 We suggest that this resistance to streptomycin could have been developed as a result of the aggressive administration of this antibiotic in the treatment for all causes of bovine udder infection cases in Syria. Moreover, in another study performed in our laboratory, we found that the MICrange was 0.125-16 μg/ml for ofloxacin and 0.

The resultant

The resultant buy SKI-606 mixture was briefly shaken and maintained at room temperature, in the dark for 30 min. At the end of this period, the absorbance of the mixture was measured at 517 nm, using an SLT Spectral Rainbow microtiter plate reader. Brine shrimps (Artemia salina) is a simple convenient general bioassay and also indicative for cytotoxicity. 6 The brine shrimp eggs were

hatched in artificial seawater (ASW). 40 mg/L of the eggs were supplemented with 6 mg/L dried yeast and oxygenated with aquarium pump for 48 h in room temperature (22–25 °C). 100 μL of the sample solution (1 mg/mL) were transferred into sterile microtiter plate. The plate was left until evaporated over night. Then 150 μL of the A. salina culture medium together with a few A. salina larvae was added, followed by 150 μL water. For each sample, four replicates were performed. After 24 and 48 h the plates were examined under a binocular microscope and the numbers of dead (non-motile) nauplii in each well were counted against the negative control. Cytotoxic assay was conducted using MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole -2-il)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide] BIBW2992 chemical structure in a 96-wheel plate on the cell cultures that had been treated with the specimen compounds in a variety of concentrations. The cells

had a density of 2 × 104 cells/well. The absorbance was read using ELISA reader with a wavelength of 550 nm. The results of absorbance measurements were used to determine the life percentage (%) with the formula = (1−absorbancy of treated cells/absorbancy of untreated cells) × 100 followed by the determination of death percentage (%) and IC50 using probit analysis. Pecaron Bay

Situbondo is one of the regencies in the East Java Province. It has a line of coastal area where coral reef ecosystem can be found. Other flora and fauna found in the coral reef ecosystem include alga, sponge animals and soft reef; meanwhile biotic factors that contribute to the coral reef ecosystem include sands, stones, and reef fragments with a coverage capacity of 57.41% to 62.638%. Pecaron Bay is located at Situbondo East Java (Fig. 1) This bay has reef structure which consists of Poriferan and Coelenterata. It has been Oxalosuccinic acid known that poriferan or marine sponge has several roles such as an impacts on substrate (including bioerosion, reef creation, and substrate stabilization, consolidation and regeneration), benthospelagic coupling (including carbon inhibitors cycling, silicon cycling, oxygen depletion and nitrogen cycling) and associations with other organisms (facilitating primary production, secondary production, provision of microhabitat, enhanced predation protection, survival success, range expansions and camouflage though association with sponges, sponges as a settlement substrate, disrupting near-boundary and reef level flow regimes, sponges as agents of biological disturbance, sponges as releasers of chemicals and sponges as tools for other organisms).

In 2003, Heinrich and colleagues (28) and Hirota and colleagues

In 2003, Heinrich and colleagues (28) and Hirota and colleagues (29) all found platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) gene mutations as an alternative pathogenesis in GISTs without KIT gene mutation. In January 26, 2006, Sunitinib, a multitargeted TKI with activity against KIT, PDGFR, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor (VEGFR), and FLT-1/KDR, also received FDA approval for the management of patients who are refractory or intolerant to imatinib (30). Overall, about 85% Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of GISTs are reported to have activating mutation in KIT or PDGFRA

(28,31,32). CD117 (c-Kit) immunohistochemistry has proven to be a reliable and sensitive diagnostic tool (22,33,34). With the TKI therapies against KIT and PDGFRA (imatinib and sunitinib),

inoperable or metastatic GISTs are now treatable, and a number of additional alternative drugs are in clinical trials. Epidemiology Although the exact incidence of GISTs in the world is hard to determine since the entity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was not uniformly defined until the late 1990s, a Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical few estimates and studies indicate the incidences of approximately 14.5 cases/million/year in Sweden (35), 14.2 in Northern Italy (36), 13.7 in Taiwan (37), 12.7 in Holland (38), 11 in Iceland (39) and 6.5 in Norway (40). In a recent report, about 5,000 new cases of GISTs were diagnosed annually (41) and a incidence of 6.8/million from 1992 to 2000 (38) in the United States. The overall incidence rates of GIST, therefore, ranges between 6.5 and 14.5 per million per year. In general, little information on the prevalence of GIST was available. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical It is believed that the prevalence of GIST is higher, as many patients live with the disease for many years or develop small GISTs only detected at autopsy or if a gastrectomy is performed for other causes (42). A study performed in Germany on consecutive autopsies revealed small (<10 mm) GISTs in 22.5% of individuals who were older than 50 years (43). Rubin and colleagues used the SEER (surveillance, epidemiology, and end results) cancer registry in US for patients with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical GIST from 1993-2002 to determine

incidence, prevalence, and 3-year survival and found the overall incidence, prevalence, and 3-year-servival Parvulin rate were 3.2/million, 16.2/million, and 73%, respectively (44). GIST mainly affects middle aged to elderly adults, typically in their 60s (35,45) with no clear gender predilection (46) although some studies demonstrated a Raf inhibitor slight male predominance (39,47). GISTs are uncommonly seen in patients younger than 40, however, cases in children and young adults have been reported (46). The true incidence of GIST in children is unknown. An incidence rate of 0.06/million/year was reported among young adults (20-29 years of age) (37). Other large series studies showed the percentage of patients with GIST below the age of 21 years ranged from 0.5% to 2.7% (45,46,48).

25 The resulting amino acid change in the PER2 protein affects it

25 The resulting amino acid change in the PER2 protein affects its phosphorylation by CKIδ/ε, and its stability and intracellular localization, hence the short period and advanced sleep phase of the patients.26,27 Interestingly, in another FASPD family, a mutation was found in the gene encoding CKIδ.28 A number of studies have focused on a polymorphism In the human PER3 gene. In one study, this polymorphism was found to be associated with delayed sleep phase dis? order (DSPD).29,30 PER3 variants

have also been associated with morning-evening preference, in this study, possibly through an effect on sleep structure, but not circadian timing. Viola and colleagues31 #ABT-888 research buy keyword# found that individuals homozygous for the PER35 allele showed marked differences in sleep compared with those homozygous for PER3,4 including greater sleep propensity, increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) and greater susceptibility Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to the effects of sleep deprivation. However, the circadian rhythms of melatonin, Cortisol, and activity were similar in both groups.31 This suggests that different clock genes may affect chronotype, either via direct effects on the clock, or

through other mechanisms such as sleep homeostasis. Polymorphism of the human Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical CLOCK gene has also been associated with evening preference and delayed timing of the sleep-wake cycle32,33 (but there are also conflicting results34). Subjects carrying one or two copies of the CLOCK 31 11C allele showed increased eveningness and reduced mornlngness, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical while 3111T/T subjects showed higher morningness scores.32,33 Although

the 3111C/C genotype is also associated with delayed sleep timing and greater daytime sleepiness in a Japanese population,33 thus far there is insufficient evidence to draw the same conclusions in Caucasians.32 There is currently no evidence Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to support an association between the 3111C/C genotype and DSPD.34,35 There is evidence to suggest that evening chronotype could increase the risk of psychiatric disorders.36 Both bipolar disorder (BPD) and schlzophrenla/schizoaffective patients show greater eveningness scores than controls. In BPD this observation appears Adenosine to be correlated with age (ie, younger BPD patients were more extreme “evening types”), while schizophrenla/schizoaffectlve subjects tended to show greater eveningness at all ages. Being classified as an “evening type” could account for some of the sleep disturbances reported by BPD patients36 and could increase the severity of BPD as evidenced by an earlier age at onset of treatment, greater likelihood of self-reported rapid mood swings, and rapidcycling mood changes.36 Some work suggests there may be a relationship between DSPD and personality disorder.37 In one study, 16% of institutionalized mentally 111 adolescents were also diagnosed with DSPS,38 as compared with 7.3% of adolescents in Western countries.