A major limitation of many conventional

A major limitation of many conventional inhibitor Pfizer assays is that data is acquired at one specific time point, whereas many biological Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and cellular processes proceed over variable time courses in response to different extraneous stimuli/ligands. Biosensor technologies have been developed to overcome the limitations of these assays and several approaches have been taken to achieve this; including impedance [8], quartz crystal microbalance [9,10], optical [11], ion selective [12] and electrochemical methods [13] of detection. Here we report on developments on the original assay design, whereby the solid gold electrodes (sensors) and calomel reference electrodes previously employed have been replaced with a miniaturised disposable ceramic probe with screen-printed gold sensors and silver/silver chloride reference electrodes suitable for an eight-well assay device.

We demonstrate the application of the technology using in vitro Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries cell cultures of synovial fibroblasts and the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2.2.?Results and Discussion2.1. Oncoprobe EquipmentFigure 1 shows the 8-well cell culture assembly connected to the analytical monitor unit. The disposable ceramic probe, which forms the base of the culture assembly, is illustrated in Figure 2. Biocompatibility and suitability of all the components of the bioassay device was tested, particularly the interaction of cells with the gold substratum. Demonstrated in Figure 3 by the adherence of human breast carcinoma cells (8701-BC) to the gold sensor as judged by scanning electron microscopy, 24 h after seeding; such attachment of viable cells being essential for the generation of an electrochemical signal (OCP).

These cells have previously been shown to adhere to solid gold sensors [1] and successfully attached to the screen printed conductive ink gold sensors employed here.Figure 1.Oncoprobe Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries instrument: Analytical monitor and 8-well cell culture assembly.Figure 2.Disposable Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries ceramic probe featuring gold sensors/tracking/contacts, reference electrode and insulating dielectric layer.Figure 3.Scanning Carfilzomib electron micrograph of human 8701-BC cells on a screen-printed, conductive gold electrode (sensor). Bar = 12 ��m. (Courtesy of Prof. T.D. Allen, PICR, Manchester, UK).The Oncoprobe instrument has developed through a number of key design features.

Progression from an independent single well prototype unit to a disposable multiwell device; miniaturisation, which has allowed the number of cells and amount of media required per assay to be significantly reduced and the screen printing manufacturing process employed confers a high degree Rapamycin mw of reproducibility and reliability. Temperature and pH, factors we have previously shown to be important to the OCP signal obtained from sensors, have benefitted from greater stability due to operation within the controlled environment of a CO2 incubator [1].

2 2 Infrared Difference

2.2. Infrared Difference quality control Spectra of the Catalytic Reaction of PKThe absorbance changes due to the catalytic reaction of PK are shown in Figure 1. They represent the difference in absorbance between the background spectrum recorded within 50 s after mixing and spectra recorded at later times. Negative bands are due to Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries substrate consumption and positive bands due to product formation. The series of solid line spectra in Figure 1A represent the catalytic reaction during 30 minutes and the dotted line is the last spectrum of the control experiments. The positive band at 1174 cm?1 is due to the formation of pyruvate [26], and the negative bands Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries at 974 cm?1 and 1103 cm?1 are caused by PEP consumption [27]. Similarly, absorption at 1240, and 918 cm?1 is assigned to ATP production while the negative band at 941 cm?1 is due to ADP consumption [28,29].

These bands are assigned as follows: the band at 1174 cm?1 is due to the C-CH3 stretching vibration of pyruvate [30], and the bands at 1103 and 974 cm?1 are due to -PO32? stretching vibrations of PEP [27]. The bands arising at 1240 cm?1 and 918 cm?1 are from the ��-PO2? and the P-O-P groups of ATP, respectively, while the ��-PO32? and P-O-P groups of ADP are observed at 941 cm?1 [28,29,31]. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries These bands are not observed in control experiments without ADP. However, the baseline is not completely flat due to the small amplitude of the signals and the long measurement time. The kinetic evolution of ATP production (1240 cm?1, black) and ADP consumption (941 cm?1, red) is shown in Figure 1B while the control (941 cm?1, green) sample, containing only PK and PEP, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries did not show any such changes.

Similar plots could also be obtained for the mentioned GSK-3 bands of PEP and pyruvate (data not shown).Figure 1.Enzymatic reaction of PK. (A) Series of overlaid spectra (solid lines) of infrared absorbance changes upon PEP and ADP addition to PK, observed for 30 min. The solid line spectra were recorded at 12 s (black), 4 min (red), 8 min (green), 16 min (blue) …2.3. Infrared Spectra of the Catalytic Reaction of FumaraseFumarase is an enzyme which reversibly catalyses the interconversion between malate and fumarate. Figure 2A shows the absorbance spectra of malic acid (a) and fumaric acid (b) at pH 7.5.Figure 2.(A) Infrared spectra of 100 mM malate (trace a) and fumarate (trace b) in H2O at pH 7.5.

(B) Series
Many electrical systems need batteries to be operational; some because of the impossibility of being permanently HTS connected to a power supply and others in order to improve their mobility. Among electrochemical accumulators, lead-acid batteries are one of the most widely used types [1]. They are found in many fields such as the automotive industry��where lead-acid batteries have been used since the very beginnings��as energy storage for solar panels, in various telecommunication applications, for remote systems, in submarines, and many others.

The relationships between the coil current and the membrane displ

The relationships between the coil current and the membrane displacement are then systematically examined. Finally, the the analyzed results confirm that a net flow rate of 52.8 ��L/min can be obtained using a diaphragm displacement of 31.5 ��m induced by a micro-coil input current of 0.5 A.2.?DesignsAs shown in Figure 1(a), the impedance pump comprises three basic plates, namely a bottom coil plate containing a planar micro-coil, a channel plate and a cover actuator plate with a PDMS diaphragm electroplated a magnetic layer on its upper surface. The pump body has overall dimensions of 26 mm �� 15 mm �� 2.5 Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries mm (length �� width �� height), while the microchannel measures 11.35 mm �� 4 mm �� 50 ��m (length �� width �� height). The present study designed three different micro-coils for evaluation purposes.

In each case, the coil contained 10 turns and had a thickness and inner radius of 20 ��m and 2,000 ��m, respectively. Meanwhile, the widths, spacing, and outer radii of the three coils were specified as follows: (a) 125 ��m / 150 ��m / 9,500 ��m; (b) 100 ��m / 125 ��m / 8,500 ��m; and (c) 75 ��m / 90 ��m / 7,500 ��m [13].Figure 1.(a) Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Schematic illustration of valveless impedance pump. (b) Details of (a) [13].When a sinusoidal electrical current is passed through the micro-coil, a magnetic induction field is generated, which creates an electromagnetic force between the coil and the electroplated magnetic layer on the upper surface of the PDMS diaphragm. As a result, the diaphragm deflects bi-directionally, causing a periodic volume change of the channel with a frequency equivalent to that of the applied voltage.

In the impedance pump, due to the interaction between traveling waves Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries emitted from the compression and reflected waves at the impedance-mismatched positions, it not only has a non-linear response to the actuating compression frequency, but also shows reversal of flow direction under certain frequency ranges [14]. Ideally, the flow rate can be increased by Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries increasing Cilengitide the stroke volume of the diaphragm. However, in designing the electromagnetic actuator, the volume change consistent with the required flow rate and its excitation frequency can not exceed the elastic limits of the PDMS diaphragm and t
Roughness parameters describe the irregularities that occur due to the material removal processes, including tool geometry, wheel grit, electrical discharge machining spark, and chemical or physical vapor deposition [1�C3].

In this sense, roughness parameters are key factors for selleck catalog a number of industrial manufactured products and directly influence their subsequent performance. Some examples are the relationship of roughness with tribology [4,5], the reflectivity of optical products fabricated by diamond turning [6] or moulding [7] and the adhesion of paint and plating applications [8].Areal surface evaluation is of greater interest than 2D profiles.

To represent the features in binary code, simple binarization, LB

To represent the features in binary code, simple binarization, LBP and LDP methods are compared on the basis of the hamming distance (HD).Figure 1.Example of finger geometry and finger veins components in (a) a captured IR finger image and (b) an image after modified Gaussian high-pass filtering.As shown in Figure 1(a,b), since parts of the finger geometry and finger vein are high www.selleckchem.com/products/Paclitaxel(Taxol).html frequency components, their modified Gaussian high-pass filtering results contain high values. Therefore, to extract a finger pattern using LBP, LDP, or binarization, pixels from not only Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries certain sections of the finger but also the entire filtered image are used. That is, all high-pass filtered values around the finger edge and finger vein are reflected Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in generating separable binary finger patterns.2.?Proposed Method2.

1. IR Finger ImagingWe designed an IR finger vein imaging device in our previous works, which includes IR illuminators, a suitable camera with an IR pass filter, and a hot-mirror, as shown in Figure 2.Figure 2.Finger imaging device.The IR illuminators are located on the finger dorsum, and IR light penetrates the finger. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Both reflected and penetrating light are captured by a camera. In our system, the finger position within Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the captured image is important; there are no additional image alignment procedures. Therefore, our device has a finger dorsum and fingertip guide, and alignment of the finger images is guaranteed.As shown in Figure 2, a hot mirror is positioned at 45�� in front of
Many manufacturing processes use robots to perform various tasks, include welding, assembling, pick and place, and defect inspection.

All these tasks require knowledge of the relative location between the robot��s end-effector and the desired target. The best-known GSK-3 technique to determine three-dimensional location information is based on stereo vision. Stereo vision systems often consist of two or multiple imaging devices along with a PC or other microprocessors. Due to the advantages of cost, easy maintenance, reliability, and non-contact measurement, stereo vision has become a popular research topic and been applied in industrial automation, autonomous vehicles, augmented reality, medical, and transportation [1�C4].A three-axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm developed by NTU-AFPC Lab [5] was the test rig in this study. Its end-effector is able to follow the desired trajectories by controlling the positions of three rod-less pneumatic cylinders using nonlinear servo control. However, the kinematic model of the test rig has many different solutions so the real trajectories of the end-effector cannot be known small molecule only by the measured position of the three pneumatic actuators.

An overview on recent hand biometrics systems is presented in Tab

An overview on recent hand biometrics systems is presented in Table 1. This table presents the relation between the features required for identification, the method www.selleckchem.com/products/azd9291.html proposed, the population involved together with the results obtained, in terms of Equal Error Rate (EER).Table 1.Literature review on most recent works related to contact-less hand biometrics based on hand geometry. This table presents the relation between the features required for identification, the method proposed, the population involved together with the results …As hand biometrics tends to contact-less scenarios, hand image pre-processing increases in difficulty and laboriousness, since less constraints are required concerning background, i.e., the part behind the hand.
Several approaches in literature tackle with this problem by providing non-contact, platform-free scenarios but with constrained background, usually employing a monochromatic color, easily distinctive from hand texture [23]. More realistic environments propose a color-based segmentation, detecting hand-like pixels either based on probabilistic [16] or clustering methods [18,24]. Although, the constraints on background are less restrictive in this case, the performance of this segmentation procedure still lacks in accuracy.However, a feasible solution for this latter scenario is based on an acquisition involving short distance to sensor. This approach considers the use of infrared illumination [9,18], due to the fact that infrared light only lighten close-to-camera regions, avoiding further regions (background) to be illuminated and therefore not acquired by the infrared camera.
Most recent trends in hand segmentation consider no constraint on background, proposing more efficient approaches based on multiscale aggregation, providing promising results in real scenarios [24]. This scenario is clearly oriented to the application of hand biometrics in mobile devices.Moreover, hand biometrics also consider different acquisition modalities, namely 3D data acquisition Batimastat [14,25], infrared cameras [9,18], scanners [6] or low-resolution acquisition devices [10,13].Best results in Table 1 are achieved by Rahman et al. [26] and Kanhangad et al. [25]. The former work consists of applying Distance Based Nearest Neighbour (DBNN) and Graph Theory to both feature extraction and feature comparison.
In contrast, the latter work presents a new approach to achieve significantly Olaparib Sigma improved performance even in the presence of large hand pose variations, by estimating the orientation of the hands in 3D space and then attempting to normalize the pose of the simultaneously acquired 3D and 2D hand images.As a conclusion, contact-less hand biometrics is receiving an increasing attention in recent years, and many aspects remain unresolved such as invariant feature extraction or hand template creation.3.

Section 6 presents an evaluation of the application, and Section

Section 6 presents an evaluation of the application, and Section 7 concludes the paper with a synthesis and discussion of the results obtained.2.?Knowledge Creation in Collaborative and Mobile Work Scenarios2.1. The Strategic Role of Data and Information in Collaborative Work ScenariosStudies emphasize three distinct areas in which the creation selleck chemicals and use of data and information plays a strategic role when a group is collaboratively working to achieve any common goal [12]. First, any group of participants uses information to ��make sense��. We understand sense-making as the principal information process for interpreting data, cues and messages about the environment. The outcome of sense-making is an ongoing series of enacted interpretations about the group members and their environment that constructs a shared context for action, or a reference frame for knowledge creation.
Thereafter, participants generate new knowledge (knowledge creation). This knowledge is distributed among the grou
Most of the basic principles and techniques for fiber-optic sensors (FOS) have been known for more than 40 years, but industrial applications are currently growing fostered by increasing diffusion of low-cost telecommunication components. Optical-fibre development to date has concentrated mostly on their use in telecommunications and data transfer systems, thus the principal stimulus for optical fibre sensors technology has been to provide a basic component set and also to facilitate specialist technologies through which slightly different versions of optical fibers can be fabricated purely for the sensing community.
The number of fiber-optic sensors products can be expected to continue growing tremendously in the years to come as rapid progress continues to be made in the related optoelectronics and communications fields.Fiber-optic sensors exhibit a set of very attractive characteristics, including immunity to electromagnetic Batimastat interference, small-sized capability, resistance to hostile environments that may comprise hazardous chemicals or of any other kind, geometric versatility, ruggedness, sensor multiplexing and distributed sensing over a single fiber. On the other hand, their main disadvantages are sometimes their high cost (compared to other technologies), the unfamiliarity of the end user together with unexplored fields of application.
There are numerous realizations of fiber-optic sensors but one extensively investigated transducing mechanism in optical sensing applications is the intensity modulation of the propagating light. Approaching simple configurations, intensity sensors modulate the optical power check this loss as the physical magnitude changes, thus providing the measurement as an optical intensity modulation signal thus facilitating their final commercialization and market spread.

With sharp decreases in cost and tangible improvements in storage

With sharp decreases in cost and tangible improvements in storage and processing capabilities of sensor nodes, the integrated presence of sensor nodes in human everyday-life, as the connector of the physical environment with virtual digital world, will be dominant in near future. Vast deployment of nodes on large-scale dimensions entails DAPT Inhibitor deep investigation on routing protocols to ensure reliable and real-time data transmission, while considering the power constraints inherent in WSNs. Normally, a sensor node is powered by a battery, and is unattended once deployed, therefore the proposed routing protocols for WSNs should not only address the challenges regarding the Quality of Service (QoS) of the application such as real-time operation, fault tolerance, scalability and data reliability, but the limited capabilities of WSNs in energy storage, processing, memory and communication and topology changes due to nodes’ mobility and demises should be addressed too.
Given the unique characteristic of WSNs, cluster-based protocols show significant advantages over flat strategies. Followings are several advantages of clustering schemes that introduce them as the most compatible protocols with WSNs attributes:Minimizing the total transmission power.Balancing the energy-exhausting load among all nodes.Reducing the bandwidth demand and efficient use of limited channel bandwidth.Lessening routing and topology maintenance overhead.Eliminating the redundant and highly correlated data in aggregation process.Reducing data collision and interference in data transmission process by use of multi-power levels in cluster-scale and network-scale communications.
Localizing the route setup within the cluster boundaries and thus generating small-size routing tables.Increasing the manageability and scalability of the network.Cluster-based routing protocols consist of four stages: cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. As it is seen in Figure 1, the setup state starts by the cluster head selection stage and proceeds by constructing clusters. The setup state is followed by the steady data transmission state, which is subdivided into data aggregation and data transmission phases. The setup and steady data transmission states form one round of running a cluster-based protocol, which iterates throughout the time of running the protocol or the network Anacetrapib lifetime. Based on the role, sensor nodes in clustering www.selleckchem.com/products/wortmannin.html algorithms may be grouped into four categories:Cluster head (CH): Coordination of a group of nodes located within the boundaries of the cluster, aggregating the sensed data by the cluster members and transmission of the aggregated data to the next hop are the main duties of a CH.

In Random Walk with k-Memory [RWM(k)] [15], when a node receives

In Random Walk with k-Memory [RWM(k)] [15], when a node receives the search packet, it avoids recently visited k neighbors and randomly selects a neighbor from the remaining neighbors and forwards the search packet to it. If there are selleckbio no unvisited neighbors, one of neighbors will be selected randomly. RWM(k) decreases the overhead compared to SRW by a constant factor, but does not change the basic behavior of SRW. Rachuri et al. [21] proposed three protocols viz., Several Short Random Walks (SSRW) search, Random Walk with Level Biased Jumps (RWLBJ) search, and Level Biased Random Walk (LBRW) search. The proposed protocols use a combination of random walk and Level Biased Walk (LBW) to search the target information. The basic idea of SSRW is to initiate several short random walks, one after the other until a target node is found.
RWLBJ is essentially a random walk with periodic jumps based on LBW. In the random step phase, a fixed/variable number of steps are taken by the walk based on SRW. In the jump phase, a fixed/variable number of steps are taken by the walk based on LBW. The basic principle of LBRW is that, the search packet starts at the sink node and traverses in a random path to one of circumference nodes and traverses back to the sink node in a random path. All three random walks have better performance than SRW. Silva et al. [3] proposed Non-Revisiting Random Walks (NRWs), which avoids re-visiting neighbors by selecting the next hop randomly among neighbors with the minimum number of visits.
Non-revisiting random walks significantly improve upon simple random walks in terms of querying cost and load balancing, and the push-pull mechanism is
Recently, the generation of spatially well-defined, three dimensional (3D) microstructures for whole-cell sensing Entinostat system have attracted interest in the development of portable bacterial whole-cell biosensing download the handbook systems, high-throughput cellular analysis as well as in fundamental studies of cell biology [1�C3]. To achieve this goal, three major aspects should be considered: (a) selection of biocompatible materials to construct 3D microstructures; (b) fabrication methods to control the size and uniform shape of the 3D microstructures; (c) polymerization methods to produce hydrogels [4�C6]. In the aspect of selection of biocompatible materials, different types of biocompatible materials have been used over the past few decades. Among the various types of biocompatible materials, hydrogels have been attractive to biochemical, biomedical and biomaterial researchers because of their non-toxic, robustness and inertness properties.

C with mixture of the following primary anti bodies, anti pRelA a

C with mixture of the following primary anti bodies, anti pRelA and anti STAT3. Alexa fluor 555 conjugated anti rabbit IgG and ?488 conjugated anti mouse IgG were used as secondary antibodies. Cells were stained with 40,6 diamidino selleck catalog 2 phenylindole, which was used for nuclear staining. Immuno fluorescence was detected with a fluorescence microscope. Wound healing assay Cells were cultured in 6 well plates until confluent. The cell monolayer was scratched with a sterile pipette tip to generate a wound. The remaining cells were washed twice with culture medium to remove cell debris. Spon taneous cellular migration was monitored using a phase contrast microscope and captured using an Olympus Digital Camera at 0, 24 and 48 h. The area of the scratches was measured and quan tified using NIH Image Analysis software.

A 24 well Insert System using an 8 um polyethylene ter ephthalate membrane was obtained and coated with Matrigel. Inserts were rehy drated with RPMI1640 for 2 h at room temperature prior to use. After rehydration, media was removed and cells were added to the top of each insert chamber in RPMI1640 containing 1% FBS. Lower cham ber contained the medium with 10% FBS as a chemo attractant. After incubation for 48 h, non invading cells were carefully removed from the top of each insert with a cotton swab. Invasive cells were stained with 0. 2% crystal violet in 20% methanol as described previously and were observed with an inverted microscope. Stained cells also dissolved in 10% SDS, and absorbance was measured at 570 nm using an ELISA reader.

Statistical analysis For tissue array analysis, statistical analyses were con ducted using SPSS version 11. 0 statistical software pro gram, and the chi squared test was used to determine the correlations between the expressions of NF ��B, pSTAT3, and MMP9. For cell cul ture experiments, data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism software for Windows Vista and the two tailed Stu dents t test was used to determine the significances of the results. P values of 0. 05 were considered statisti cally significant for all statistical analyses. Results NF ��B, pSTAT3 and MMP9 are positively correlated with each other in clinical gastric cancer specimens Representative results of the immunohistochemical stain ing are shown in Figure 1. Immunoreactivity for NF ��B and pSTAT3 were found in both the nuclei and cytoplasm of tumor cells.

Cells showing distinct nuclear staining, regardless of the presence of cytoplasmic staining, were considered to express Drug_discovery activated forms of NF ��B or STAT3. On the other hand, the expression of MMP9 was detected Cisplatin mainly in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Positive immunoreactivity for nuclear NF ��B was found in 41 of 255 of clinical samples of gastric cancer. In addition, the expression of nuclear pSTAT3 and cytoplasmic MMP9 were found in 61 of 255 and 46 of 255 of gastric cancer speci mens, respectively. Data concerning the correlations between NF ��B activation, STAT3 activation, and MMP9 expression

crosslinker disuccinimidyl suberate which has approximately the s

crosslinker disuccinimidyl suberate which has approximately the same selleck chemical Rapamycin linker length as BMH but more potential target amino acids in Sec61p, Sss1p and Sbh1p. Crosslinking of wildtype membranes resulted in a single prominent crosslinked band which was about 10 kD larger than Sec61p. Immunoblotting on the crosslinked material with anti bodies against Sbh1p and Sss1p revealed that this band contained primarily Sec61p Sss1p heterodimers, but a very modest amount of Sec61p Sbh1p heterodimers was also detected. In sec61L7 microsomes, the crosslink was at least 5 fold weaker com pared to wildtype membranes confirming changes in the interactions of Sec61L7p with Sss1p. We con clude that L7 of Sec61p is essential for hetero oligomeric stability of the Sec61 complex, and thus for stability of the Sec61 channel.

Loss of L7 does not affect Sec61 complex interaction with the Sec63 complex The heptameric Sec complex consists of the trimeric Sec61 complex associated with the Sec63 complex com prising Sec62p, Sec63p, Sec71p and Sec72p. Sec71p is the only glycosylated Sec complex subunit, association of the Sec61 complex with the Sec63 complex can there fore be demonstrated by co precipitation of Sec61p with the lectin ConcanavalinA. The heptameric Sec com plex is stable in digitonin. To ask whether L7 deletion in Sec61p had any effect on formation of the Sec complex, we solubilized wildtype and sec61L7 microsomes in digitonin and removed ribosome bound Sec61 complexes by ultracentrifugation.

From the lysate, we precipitated the heptameric Sec complex using ConcanavalinA Sepharose and analysed both the amount of free Sec61 complex in the supernatant and the amount of ConcanavalinA associated Sec61 complex by Western Blotting. Saturation of the precipitation was controlled by a second ConcanavalinA precipitation from the supernatant. In lysates from SEC61 wildtype membranes, the amount of Sec61p in the free fraction was 25 30%, and the remainder was found with the hepta meric Sec complex in the ConcanavalinA bound fraction. The amount of digitonin solubilized Sec61L7p was substantially lower than that of the wild type protein, and its distribution Batimastat was also different, al most all detectable Sec61L7p was found in the ConcanavalinA bound fraction, and little if any in the free fraction. Inspection of the upper part of the gel showed that Sec61L7p forms SDS resistant aggregates in digitonin, in contrast to wildtype Sec61p.

The ratios of wildtype or mu tant Sec61p to Sec62p, however, were similar in the ConcanavalinA bound fractions suggesting no dramatic effects of the L7 deletion on heptameric Sec complex formation. Loss of L7 does not interfere with binding of proteasomes to the Sec61 complex Numerous mutations in SEC61 affect export of misfolded proteins from the ER to the Belinostat buy cytosol for degradation by pro teasomes. In addition, proteasomes can bind directly to the Sec61 channel, and a specific mu tation in L7 affects proteasome binding. We therefore asked whether the Y