Home care organizations engage several home care providers, defi

Home care organizations engage several home care providers, defined according to their educational level as registered (home care) nurses, certified nurse assistants and home helps. To facilitate the readability of this paper, we will use the term “nurses” for all these home care providers. Some home care organizations have teams of district nurses specialized in palliative care and/or home care technology but in the Netherlands palliative care is part of regular health care, so most clients will be cared for by educated nurses with at least Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical three or four years of general professional education. Often these nurses

cooperate with the found family GP, because he is responsible for the medical care of his patients living at home. The general practitioner often refers patients to home care, although in the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Netherlands a formal needs assessment by an independent assessment agency first has to

be conducted before home care financed via the national insurance can be delivered. In other countries terminally ill patients might be referred to specialist palliative care, but the approach of Dutch government is that palliative care should be part of regular health care, in most cases provided by generalists (GPs and nurses) [17]. In order to guarantee the provision of good palliative Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical care, GPs and nurses can consult multidisciplinary specialist consulting teams of the Comprehensive Cancer Centres in the Netherlands. Moreover Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical palliative care has become an important subject in the primary curriculum of GPs and at post-curricular courses for doctors and nurses organized for instance by the Comprehensive Cancer Centres. The definition of Turkish or Moroccan migrants is not dependent on their formal nationality; they might have adopted the Dutch nationality. In this paper we define Turkish or Moroccan migrants as persons who live in the Netherlands but who were born in Turkey or Morocco respectively, or whose parents (or one of their parents) were born in Turkey or Morocco. We defined a ‘terminally ill client’ as a Tubacin FDA client suffering from an incurable illness and having a probable life

expectancy of not more than six months. Carfilzomib The Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical central terms ‘home care’, ‘terminally ill clients’ and ‘Turkish and Moroccan clients’ were clearly defined in our questionnaires. Participants In order to recruit nurses and general practitioners who have experience of home care for terminally ill Turkish and Moroccan patients we first established where these migrants are mainly living. Using data from Statistics Netherlands we identified the 30 areas with the largest number of Turkish and Moroccan inhabitants. In order to find general practitioners with experience with these migrant groups, we looked for the addresses of all GP practices located in the 30 relevant areas. As their number was far too large, we searched for addresses of practices within the urban areas with indications of social and economic deprivation in the 30 relevant areas.

Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that transdermal administratio

Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that transdermal administration of rivastigmine prolongs the time to reach the peak concentration and reduces fluctuations in plasma concentration. It is these differences in peak and trough plasma concentrations that are in part responsible for the decreased side effects associated with the patches in comparison to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the capsules [despite Mercier et al. 2007; Cummings et al. 2007]. Unlike

other acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, rivastigmine is largely interaction free. It is metabolized by hydrolysis, avoiding possible interaction with numerous other medicines metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system. Administering medicines to people with dementia that is progressing can be difficult and may result in increased burden of care. Studies have shown an overall satisfaction with respect to ease of use of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the rivastigmine patch over capsules and less interference with daily life [Blesa et al. 2007]. TDS offer carers and families an easy way of ensuring that the prescribed medication is administered in the least restrictive way. Parkinson’s disease Depression, disability, postural instability

and cognitive impairment have been shown to have the greatest influence on quality Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease [Schrag et al. 2000]. Improvement of these features therefore becomes an important clinical target in the treatment Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the disease. Studies on Parkinson’s disease implicate intermittent or pulsatile stimulation of dopamine receptors as one potential mechanism of treatment-related complications of levodopa that limits its effectiveness. Continuous

administration of medication via the transdermal route offers a potential avenue to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical circumvent pulsatile drug delivery, thus deflecting the development of dyskinesia and motor fluctuations [Pfeiffer, 2007]. Rotigotine is a non-ergot dopamine agonist which has been formulated and available as a once-daily transdermal patch that offers Anacetrapib continuous release of dopamine. Review studies suggest high adherence and tolerability, and side effects reported were of mild to moderate intensity, mostly local skin reaction and nausea [Boroojerdi et al. 2010]. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD is characterized by core symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Sympathomimetic medications such as methylphenidate have been recognized as the best documented pharmacological treatment for ADHD. Children with ADHD often need varying dosage for overall coverage of their symptoms throughout the day. The concept of a flexible delivery of drug (mg/h) rather than a fixed dose (mg/dose or mg/day) can offer a potential solution for symptom nevertheless control over a desired time and reduce the need for frequent dosing.

The major problem and daunting challenge for medicine will be to

The major problem and daunting challenge for medicine will be to find the significant signals within this enormous amount of individual data and enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, the highly heterogeneous data will have to be integrated into predictive models which will focus on the well-being of the individual. This is not a trivial task by any measure. In order to succeed in understanding a highly complex organism such as the human body, a systems-driven, cross-disciplinary

environment will be a fundamental necessity for the biology of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the future.3,7,8 Figure 1. In 10 years each individual will be surrounded by a virtual cloud of billions of data points—P4 medicine. The Department of Molecular Biotechnology (MBT) at the University of Washington Medical School was such a cross-disciplinary department from 1992 to 2000. Within a short period of 8 years, the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical researchers at this department pioneered fundamental new techniques in the emerging field of proteomics, created the software that fueled the genome project, developed a revolutionary multi-parameter high-speed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cell sorter, and pioneered the except ink-jet DNA synthesizer that could both synthesize

thousands of DNA fragments and generate DNA arrays with hundreds of thousands of DNA fragments.3,4 We wished to build an Institute for Systems Biology in addition to the cross-disciplinary platform of MBT. However, bureaucracies at large institutions, honed by the past, are often

barely capable of dealing with the present, let alone the future. Frustrations with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical different university bureaucracies were the impetus for creating the independent, non-profit Institute for Systems Biology (ISB) in Seattle. The ISB was established as a selleck chemicals non-traditional institution, where scientific collaboration could take place across disciplines and where biologists and other scientists, along with technologists, could Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical freely commingle, creating a milieu in which the cross-pollination of ideas was the rule and not the exception.3 It has taken us more than 10 years to create the cross-disciplinary culture where scientists speak one another’s languages and they can work together effectively in teams.8 Our cross-disciplinary culture is very much driven AV-951 by the idea that leading-edge biology necessitates the need to invent new technologies (and thus open new areas of data space for exploration) and that these new technologies mandate the development of new mathematical and computational analytical tools (e.g. the ISB mantra, the “holy trinity,” is “biology drives technology drives computation”). This cross-disciplinary, systems-driven platform and culture also foster innovation because the “holy trinity” creates new technologies, new analytical tools, and finally new concepts—and these have fueled significant company creation by ISB.

In the case of a sufficiently strong impact, the upstroke of the

In the case of a sufficiently strong impact, the upstroke of the PSN can reach positive values, called a post-systolic motion.6),7),8),9),10),11),12) We propose this simple mechanism to explain the biphasic configuration of the post-ejection velocity spike. Previous research had suggested it to be a resultant of different phenomena such as: asynchronous Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical contraction and ventricular Nilotinib interdependence,13) asynchronous deformation of subendocardial and subepicardial LV wall layers14) and tug-of-war between weak and strong segments during the isovolumic relaxation phase.15) The prevalence of the positive PSN velocities found in the current study is somewhat higher than previously reported,3) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical probable

because no temporal averaging of the measurement results was applied. The centrifugal propagation of the positive PSN velocity front is illustrated by a frame-by-frame analysis of a color TDI sample (Fig. 6). Fig. 6 The typical sequence of the centrifugal distribution of the apically directed velocity of the myocardium (red-colored area) following the aortic valve closure. Four consecutive images are shown. Panel A corresponds to the post-systolic velocity notch … To the best of our knowledge the present study describes for the first time the existence of two PSN spikes with apically

directed acceleration. This was possible due to use of the high frame rate and non-smoothed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical measurement results. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical While the origin of the first PSN spike is as discussed above, probably, the closure of the aortic valve, the genesis of the second PSN spike is less clear. We hypothesize that the sudden cessation of the aortic backflow at the instant of the aortic valve closure16) is a potential mechanism behind the second PSN spike. The transmission

of the kinetic energy could be sufficient to cause an acceleration of adjacent structures in the direction of the left ventricle.17) The magnitude of the retrograde flow in the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ascending aorta is known to vary significantly between the healthy subjects and constitutes 4-29% of the antegrade aortic flow. At an average of 600-700 mL/min retrograde flow the coronary http://www.selleckchem.com/products/brefeldin-a.html circulation takes 200-300 mL/min, the remainder turns around in the sinuses of Valsalva.18) The maximal velocity of the retrograde flow in the ascending aorta is in the range of 8-40 cm/s in healthy subjects.19) These differences in velocity and volume of the retrograde aortic flow are likely to cause a wide spectrum of velocity and duration of AV-951 the second PSN spike. Further studies are needed to elucidate its nature and clinical significance. Limitations The apical longitudinal axis view is hampered by suboptimal alignment of the Doppler interrogation with longitudinal motion of the ascending aorta which varies with the magnitude of the aorto-septal angle. However, it is unlikely that possible malalignment influenced the timing intervals measured in this study.

The investigators utilized a development cohort to identify a sin

The investigators utilized a development cohort to identify a single or a multi-parameter algorithm with three components: fluid index, breath index, and personalization parameters. Using all three parameters yielded a sensitivity of 65%, a specificity of 90%, and a false positive rate of 0.7 events per patient-year. Though this technology seems quiet promising as a continuous noninvasive surveillance, the failure rate of the device was approximately 45%, reflecting the need for further enhancements. Additionally, the concept of a wearable external device Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on a constant basis will have compliance issues for widespread use. If feasible, such technology might have a role for a defined

period post discharge. Specialized implantable devices also have been studied with the sole objective of monitoring impedance and arrhythmias to decrease hospitalization. In the Chronicle Offers Management to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Patients with Advanced Signs and Symptoms

of Heart failure (COMPASS-HF) study,14 a fully implantable device — similar to the pulse generator of a pacemaker — was implanted in patients with both reduced and preserved ejection fraction. This system had the ability to continuously monitor and transmit right ventricular hemodynamic parameters. Of all the hemodynamic data collected, the right ventricular pressure at the time of pulmonary valve opening had a strong correlation with actual pulmonary Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical artery pressures. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical These data were reviewed at least once a week, and intervention occurred accordingly. There was no significant change in the primary endpoint of HF-related events (hospitalizations, emergency room and urgent care visits needing IV diuretics). A retrospective analysis of the COMPASS-HF data did show a 36% reduction of a first HF-related hospitalization. When estimating intracardiac http://www.selleckchem.com/products/BAY-73-4506.html pressures as a surrogate marker of an acute decompensation of HF, it has been shown that the left atrial pressure is

an accurate correlate of increased symptoms of shortness of breath. Though the use of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical continuous hemodynamic monitoring in the inpatient setting has been a controversial topic, it generally is agreed that the estimation of left atrial pressures will lead to early detection Anacetrapib of fluid overload state. The recent CHAMPION trial15 utilized a wireless sensor deployed into the distal pulmonary artery that could continuously transmit wedge pressure. At 6 months, there was a significant 28% reduction of the rate of HF-related hospitalizations. The outcome was similar in patients with preserved or low ejection fraction. The safety profile was favorable with a 98.6% freedom from device-related or system-related complications. Though there was a significant positive impact found in this study,15 the device was not approved since the FDA selleck chem Nutlin-3a concluded that the positive results of the trial were undermined by the fact that the sponsor intervened to a degree that exceeded the research protocol.

165 Other fields where chronopharmacology is of demonstrated rele

165 Other fields where chronopharmacology is of demonstrated relevance are those of asthma and cardiovascular disorders.166,167 In the field of psychotropic agents or illegal drugs, aside from research on laboratory animals, and research on alcohol,

little is known on circadian changes in pharmacodynamics. In particular, the extent of changes in the concentration/response curve over the course of the day has not been well evaluated in humans. The pharmacology of alcohol shows circadian changes.168 Several studies during the last 50 years have shown that alcohol is absorbed more rapidly, with higher blood levels when taken during the morning, but that it is also eliminated faster.169 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Each addicted person has his or her own daily schedule to start the consumption of alcohol 170 Alcohol given during one day to nonaddicted volunteers does not influence the circadian rhythm, nor the concentration of Cortisol, but it increases that of selleck compound testosterone171 and suppresses the nocturnal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical increase of TSH, and decreases the mean concentration of the later hormone.168 Clinical consequences of chronopharmacology There is little information as to whether giving a psychotropic medication once a day Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or as a divided dose shows any benefit in terms of efficacy or side effects. It might be with substances that themselves influence the

physiology of biological clocks that chronopharmacology will find its major application. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Benzodiazepines and other sedatives can influence the phase position of circadian rhythms, and lithium, as well as a few antidepressants, might modify the functioning of the SCN.172 However, lithium and most antidepressants and many benzodiazepines have a half -life of elimination that is longer that 12 hours; thus their effects persist throughout the nicthemere. Melatonin has a short half-life and its timing of administration is quite

relevant for its efficacy in SAD treatment.77 The following general clinical and general rules prevail: a stimulating medication should be given Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the morning and not late in the afternoon or in the evening, a medication that is sedative should be given at the time of sleep, and a medication that induces nausea might be better tolerated when given with a meal. Conclusion The time structure of Tubacin biology is as essential as is its spatial structure, yet the relevance of chronobiology for pathophysiology remains underestimated in internal medicine, neurology, or psychiatry This might be because measuring the rhythms Anacetrapib of most biological variables over the long term is complex, because feedback loops and regulations maintain vital phenomena within apparently stable ranges labeled as norms, and finally because our knowledge about the temporal structure of biology remains incomplete. Indeed, the relation between endogenous biological oscillators is far less well established than are mechanisms in other domains of biology, for example endocrine feedback mechanisms.

Indeed, the response to a 35 or 42 Hz, 10 ms stimulus looked rema

Indeed, the response to a 35 or 42 Hz, 10 ms stimulus looked remarkably similar regardless of stimulation intensities, with the primary differences manifesting in phase. Biphasic responses were also noted at higher intensities and lower frequencies, whereas unipolar depolarization was most common at 10 mW/mm2. At frequencies selleck greater than 35 Hz, the response waveform became largely sinusoidal. FIGURE 3 Peristimulus average hippocampal LFP responses to medial septal stimulation reveal the influence

of stimulation parameters on waveform shape. (A) Hippocampal LFP response to 50 mW/mm2, 7 Hz, 10 ms square-wave optical stimulation of the MS (magenta bar). … To further characterize the hippocampal LFP response to pulsatile stimulation, we examined the spectral properties of the mean signal from six trials of 50 mW/mm2, 10 ms stimulation pulses at 7, 23,

and 35 Hz (Figure ​Figure44). In all cases, multitaper spectrograms were generated using seven tapers (T = 4 W = 1) and a 4 s long moving window iterating at 0.5 s. This wide temporal window resulted in some temporal blurring of the stimulation onset and offset into the non-stimulation epochs, but allowed us to more precisely resolve the frequency domain. A clear increase in power in the spectrum corresponding to the stimulation frequency was apparent during the stimulation epoch as compared to the pre- and post-stimulus epochs in all cases (Figures 4A,D,G). A spectrogram of each case revealed the temporal precision of this response (Figures 4B,E,H), as well as some of the interactions with power at other frequencies. In all cases low-frequency (1–10 Hz) power was reduced as compared to the pre- and post-stimulus

epochs, presumably via stimulation-controlled hijacking of the LFP signal. Examining the mean autocorrelation lends further support to this idea: during stimulation in all cases, the signal became highly correlated at stimulation frequencies (Figures 4C,F,I). At higher frequencies the oscillatory nature of the LFP response dominated (Figure ​Figure3B3B), resulting in a highly correlated and almost sinusoidal signal that indicated the LFP rhythm was largely dominated and locked to the stimulus frequency Brefeldin_A and phase. FIGURE 4 Spectral and correlational response to medial septal pulse stimulation demonstrate time-locked and frequency specific responses. Stimulation at 50 mW/mm2, 10 ms pulse width, and 7 Hz (A–C), 17 Hz (D–F), and 35 Hz (G–I) each produced … Aside from increases in power at the stimulation frequency, there were concomitant increases of power at harmonics of that frequency. In the case of 7 Hz stimulation, power was also increased at 14 Hz, 21 Hz, and so forth (Figures 4A,B).

She was unable to name a watch or pen and could not follow multis

She was unable to name a watch or pen and could not follow multistep commands. There was no dysarthria, although she did display bradylalia. Cranial nerves were Perifosine normal except for decreased hearing

to finger rub bilaterally. Motor, sensory, and coordination exams were normal. Deep tendon reflexes were normal throughout with flexor plantar responses. Unstressed gait was narrow based with slightly unsteady tandem gait. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) of the head at presentation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical showed bilateral (left greater than right) temporal lobe hypodensities and diffuse atrophy (Fig. 1). The patient was admitted for further evaluation. Figure 1 CT head upon presentation. Noncontrast CT of the head showing bilateral temporal hypodensities, left greater than right. Diagnosis Based on the 17-DMAG msds clinical presentation

and imaging findings, the patient was empirically started on acyclovir Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the emergency room, although the duration of her symptoms made Herpes encephalitis unlikely. The differential diagnosis for subacute cognitive decline is very broad and includes infections (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], tuberculosis, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical neurosyphilis); primary CNS tumor including CNS lymphoma, or metastasis; multifocal infarcts; inflammatory/infiltrative processes such as sarcoidosis; vasculitis; demyelinating disease (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis); neurodegenerative disease such as progressive dementia; prion disease; paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis; and exposures to toxins such as organic solvents. This initial broad differential is common in patients ultimately diagnosed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with isolated CNS vasculitis secondary to the nonspecific neurologic symptoms. In this patient, an MRI of the brain with and without contrast showed T2/FLAIR hyperintense and T1 hypointense lesions in the bilateral lateral temporal lobes (left greater than right) with enhancement and restriction of diffusion in a gyriform pattern (Fig. 2). Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) of the head and neck were

normal. Figure Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2 MRI brain. (A) Diffusion weighted Anacetrapib image-revealing restriction of diffusion in gyriform pattern in bilateral temporal lobes, worse on the left, confirmed with apparent diffusion coefficient map (B). (C) FLAIR image showing hyperintesities in bilateral … Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed 1 white blood cell, 148 red blood cells without xanthochromia, protein 61 mg/dL, and glucose 123 mg/dL. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL), cryptococcal antigen, Gram stain, bacterial and fungal cultures, toxoplasma antigen, arbovirus PCR, West Nile Virus PCR, and varicella zoster PCR were all negative. Cytology and flow cytometry could not be performed on the CSF because there were too few cells. CSF and serum angiotensin converting enzyme levels were normal.

Burnt area mapping by remote

Burnt area mapping by remote sensing is mostly done through measuring the changes of the reflectance of surface objects after the fire that occur mainly in the reflective part (0.45�C3.0 ��m) of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is because a fire alters the spectral response of the land surface by selleckchem reducing the fractional cover, density, greenness and water content of vegetation by partially or completely removing surface litter, exposing and altering simultaneously the colour and brightness of the soil [6]. These changes in the surface properties result to a strong contrast of the fire-affected areas with the surrounding environment [7,8].Generally, remote sensing-based methods employed today differ with regards to the number of the satellite scenes used and the type of processing carried out in the analysis.

Regarding the number of images employed in the analysis, methods are separated into single-image methods if one post-fire image is used, and bi-temporal methods when more than one image (usually one image before and one after the fire) is used. Single-image approaches have important advantages over bi-temporal methods, mainly because they are more cost and time effective in processing and analysis, and they are less prone to potential processing errors [9]. In addition, these methods do not require registration and do not require correcting the satellite imagery for errors arising from sun�Csensor geometry, atmospheric effects or perhaps differences in sensor calibration [10].

Nonetheless, for this type of approach, satellite imagery has to be acquired very shortly after the suppression of the fire incident, as otherwise, the identification of the burnt areas becomes more difficult [11]. On the other hand, the main advantage of the multi-temporal approaches is that they reduce the confusion with the types of permanent cover [12]. In terms of the type of processing applied, methods employed vary from those based on the calculation of simple radiometric indices, such as the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of [13] or the Normalised Burnt Ratio (NBR) of [14], to other more complex ones, such as image classification and sub-pixel analysis [15]. A few other studies have proposed the retrieval of burnt area from surface temperature derived from thermal bands of satellite sensors (e.g., [16]). Overviews on the different remote sensing-based approaches for burnt area mapping can be found in [17,18].Based on the available methods and satellite sensors in orbit, operational services have also been developed by international space agencies providing at multiple resolutions and spatial scales fire analysis data, including burnt area maps, often in the form of regional-scale products [19].

The rats were administered ketofen (3–5 mg/kg) to minimize pain a

The rats were administered ketofen (3–5 mg/kg) to minimize pain and returned to normal housing to recover

for 3–5 days. OPTICAL STIMULATION AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGIC RECORDINGS Using our adapted NeuroRighter system, electrophysiologic recordings were sampled at 25 kHz with a 1–9,000 Hz bandwidth. LFPs were isolated online with a 1–500 Hz 1-pole Butterworth band-pass PLK inhibition selleck filter and downsampled to 2000 Hz. Action potentials were isolated both online (Newman et al., 2013) and offline, with the offline results presented here. Action potentials were detected offline using custom-written adaptations to the automated spike-sorting Wave_clus scripts (Quiroga et al., 2004). The raw data was band-pass filtered offline from 500 to 5000 Hz. For the TDT electrodes, the median signal was removed across the CA3 and CA1 electrodes, respectively. For the NeuroNexus Array, the median signal was removed across all electrodes. Positive and negative thresholds were applied at 5x the SD of the signal, and the resulting waveforms were matched, sorted, and isolated using

superparamagnetic clustering (Wave_clus; Quiroga et al., 2004). Power spectra and spectrograms were computed using the Chronux suite of analysis tools and multitaper analysis (Bokil et al., 2010), with a moving window size of 4 s stepping in 0.5 s increments, T = 4, W = 1, and seven tapers. Data were recorded intraoperatively and for up to 4 weeks postoperatively. To stimulate awake and behaving animals, calibrated ferrules were connected via armored patch fiber cables (200 μm diameter, 0.67 NA, Plexon). Square-wave stimulation pulses varied between 10, 30, and 50 mW/mm2; 7, 11 (theta), 17, 23, 35 (beta), and 42 (gamma) Hz; and 2, 5, and 10 ms pulse widths. NeuroRighter enables custom-designed

stimulation times and amplitudes to be defined via Matlab script (Newman et al., 2013). We leveraged this customizability to develop several other stimulation patterns, including varying frequency, Poisson distributions, and continuous sinusoids, which are described in more detail as they are presented. In all cases, the experimental protocol consisted of repeated 1 min recordings of 20 s of background, 20 s of stimulation with a particular pattern, and a subsequent 20 s of additional background. Stimulation protocols were performed AV-951 in random order and repeated numerous times over several recording sessions. This setup was able to stimulate and record LFP and single-unit responses from awake and behaving animals uninterrupted for several hours and over several days. HISTOLOGY Histology was performed after experimentation to verify microelectrode recording locations and light-sensitive ion channel expression. Rats were deeply anesthetized with an overdose of Euthasol (5 ml/kg, Virbac, Fort Worth, TX, USA) injected intraperitoneally. They were then transcardially perfused with 0.9% saline followed by 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.2.