CoMFA studies require that the 3D structures of the molecules to

CoMFA studies require that the 3D structures of the molecules to be analyzed be aligned according to a suitable conformational

template, which is assumed to be a “bioactive” conformation. Molecular alignment was carried out using the SYBYL “fit-atom” alignment function (Tripos Inc. 2002). The crystal structure of compound 4 was used as the alignment template. Figure 1 shows the 3D alignment of 27 molecules according to the alignment scheme in Fig. 2. Fig. 1 The 3D alignment of the 27 molecules is shown by capped sticks without hydrogens Fig. 2 Molecule 4 with atoms used for superimposition NU7026 clinical trial are named 1 to 7 CoMFA study The CoMFA descriptors were used as independent variables, and pEC50 values where used as dependent variables, in partial least squares (PLS) (Wold et al., 1984) regression analysis to derive 3D QSAR models. The steric (Lennard-Jones) and electrostatic (Coulomb) CoMFA fields were calculated using an sp 3 carbon as the steric probe atom and a +1 charge for the electrostatic probe. A grid spacing of 2 Å and a distance-dependent JQ-EZ-05 dielectric constant were chosen. The cutoff value for both steric and electrostatic interactions was set to 30 kcal/mol. Partial least squares analysis PLS regression analyses were performed using cross-validation to evaluate the predictive ability of the CoMFA models. Initial

PLS regression analyses were performed in conjunction with the cross-validation (leave-one-out method) option to obtain the optimal number of components to be used in the subsequent analysis of the dataset. All the leave-one-out Luminespib research buy cross-validated PLS analyses were performed with a column filter value of 2.0 kcal/mol to improve the signal-to-noise ratio by omitting those lattice points whose energy variation was below this threshold value. The final PLS regression analysis with 10 bootstrap

groups and the optimal number of components was performed on the complete dataset. The optimal number of components was determined by selecting the smallest PRESS value. Usually this value corresponds to Unoprostone the highest cross-validated \( r^2 \left(r^2_\textcv \right) \) value. The \( r^2_\textcv \) was calculated using the formula $$ r^2_\textcv = 1 – {\frac{{\sum {} \left(Y_\textpredicted – Y_\textobserved \right)^2}}{{\sum {} \left(Y_\textobserved – Y_\textmean \right)^2}}} $$where Y predicted, Y observed, and Y mean are the predicted, actual, and mean values of the target property (pEC50), respectively. The number of components obtained from the cross-validated analysis was subsequently used to derive the final QSAR models. In addition to \( r^2_\textcv \), the corresponding PRESS [PRESS = ∑(Y predicted − Y observed)2], the number of components, the nonconventional correlation coefficient \( r^2_\textncv \), and its standard errors were also computed.

In this study, a comprehensive phenotypic and genotypic character

In this study, a comprehensive phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the novel isolate Ivo14T was performed that P5091 allowed a detailed comparison to other bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a-containing members of the OM60/NOR5 clade, so that a profound knowledge of the metabolic plasticity and taxonomic relationships encountered in this ecologically important group of marine gammaproteobacteria could be obtained. Results and discussion Isolation and identification of mixotrophic representatives of the OM60/NOR5 clade An isolation strategy originally designed for the retrieval of strains belonging to the genus Rhodopirellula within the Planctomycetales

resulted in the isolation of numerous representatives of the OM60/NOR5 clade of marine gammaproteobacteria [13, 25]. The isolation strategy included the use of antibiotics and a screening of red-pigmented strains,

so that all retrieved OM60/NOR5 isolates were pigmented. Strains belonging to this phylogenetic group represented about 10% of all red-pigmented colonies and could be affiliated either to the NOR5-3 or NOR5-1 lineage within this clade based on analyses of their 16S rRNA gene sequences [13]. Strains belonging to the OM60/NOR5 clade were further examined for the presence of pufL and pufM genes encoding proteins SCH727965 of the photosynthetic reaction center. From 18 out of 22 isolated strains fragments of pufLM genes could be amplified by PCR using specific primers. Probably, the strategy of Winkelmann and Harder [25] was such an effective method for the isolation of mixotrophic members these of the OM60/NOR5 clade, because it selected for pigmented and slowly growing

bacteria adapted to oligotrophic habitats. Two of the isolated strains, Rap1red (= NOR5-3) and Ivo14T (= NOR5-1BT), selleck representing two different lineages of the OM60/NOR5 clade were selected for a further analysis using genome sequencing. Strain Ivo14T representing the highly diverse and environmentally important NOR5-1 lineage was chosen for an additional detailed phenotypic characterization. Noteworthy, Haliea rubra (H. rubra), which is closely related to C. litoralis was also reported to form red-pigmented colonies on Marine Agar 2216 [18], but in the original species description the formation of photosynthetic pigments was not reported. To exclude the possibility that a phototrophic phenotype has escaped attention in described strains of the genus Haliea, type strains belonging to this genus were cultured in SYPHC medium, which allowed expression of pigments in all photoheterotrophic strains belonging to the OM60/NOR5 clade tested so far. In fact, photosynthetic pigments could be extracted from cells of H.

This effect was similar regardless of Gail score, whereas the eff

This effect was similar regardless of Gail score, whereas the effects were markedly stronger for women with higher baseline estradiol

levels [206]. SERMs and menopausal symptoms In breast cancer patients, it has been well documented that tamoxifen increases both severity and frequency of hot flushes. The situation is likely less severe when using raloxifene. Some RCTs did not DAPT report an PRIMA-1MET research buy increased frequency or severity of vasomotor symptoms in women discontinuing oestrogen–progestin as compared with placebo [207, 208]. Nevertheless, other studies reported an increase in hot flushes when using raloxifene [209], which led to the suggestion of a gradual conversion to raloxifene from low-dose oestrogen, with EX 527 in vitro a progression from 60 mg every alternate day to 60 mg/day. It has been showed in short duration studies that it is possible to avoid SERMs associated hot flushes and menopausal symptoms, using

a combination of a SEM (bazedoxifene) and estrogens (conjugated estrogens) [210]. Some non-skeletal side effects are favourable (breast cancer protection); others on the other hand are unfavourable (stroke risk, thromboembolism and endometrial cancer). The presence and the magnitude of these side effects vary between SERMs concluding that women with breast cancer treated with tamoxifen have an 82% increased risk of ischemic stroke and a 29% increased risk of any stroke, although the absolute risk remains small. Strontium ranelate Strontium ranelate is a first-line treatment for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Its dual mode of action simultaneously reduces bone resorption and increases bone formation [211]. Strontium out ranelate has a limited number of non-skeletal effects, for which most of

the evidence comes from post hoc analyses of these two trials. Strontium and cartilage Osteoarthritis involves the degeneration of joint cartilage and the adjacent bone, which leads to joint pain and stiffness. There is some preclinical evidence for an effect of strontium ranelate on cartilage degradation. Strontium ranelate has been demonstrated to stimulate the production of proteoglycans in isolated human chondrocytes, leading to cartilage formation without affecting cartilage resorption [212]. There is also evidence for an impact on biomarkers of cartilage degradation. Treatment with strontium ranelate was associated with significantly lower levels of urinary excretion of a marker of cartilage degradation (CTX-II) (p < 0.0001) [213, 214]. The potential for a clinical effect of strontium ranelate in osteoarthritis indicated that 3 years’ treatment with strontium ranelate was associated with a 42% lower overall osteoarthritis score (p = 0.0005 versus placebo) and a 33% reduction in disc space narrowing score (p = 0.03 versus placebo). These changes were concomitant to a 34% increase in the number of patients free of back pain (p = 0.03 versus placebo) [215].

[26] and Spencer et al [27] Radiographic vertebral deformities

[26] and Spencer et al. [27]. Radiographic vertebral deformities were defined as vertebral heights more than 3 SDs below the vertebra-specific population mean on the radiograph; vertebrae that met this posterior height criterion were classified as crush. The remaining vertebrae that had an anterior height reduction were called wedge. The remaining AMN-107 vertebrae that only had a central height reduction were called endplate. The timing of deformities could not be determined in this cross-sectional study. Vertebral osteoarthritis Radiographs were scored by a single reader (HK) for osteoarthritis of the thoracic spine in T4–T12 or lumbar

spine in L1–L4 using the Kellgren–Lawrence (KL) grade as follows: KL0, normal; KL1, slight osteophytes; KL2, definite osteophytes; KL3, disc space narrowing with large osteophytes; and KL4, bone sclerosis, disc space narrowing, and large osteophytes [28]. In the present

study, we defined the spine with disc space narrowing with and without osteophytes as KL3 [19]. KL grade was determined at intervertebral spaces, and the highest scores among thoracic or lumbar intervertebral spaces were then identified as the KL grade for that individual. Osteoarthritis was defined as KL grade 2 or higher. To evaluate the intrarater reliability of the KL grading, randomly selected radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine were scored by the same reader more than 1 month after the first reading for 40 individuals. The intrarater reliabilities were evaluated by kappa analysis. The reliability in KL grading of the thoracic selleck products or lumbar radiographs was found to be sufficient with kappa scores of 0.76 and 0.85, respectively. Radiographic readers (KA and HK) were blind to the ICG-001 supplier subjects’ ages and other Teicoplanin characteristics. Statistical analysis For reasons of poor technical quality, the radiographs of two women did not allow reliable measurements of vertebral heights, leaving 584 women for the analyses. The Cochran–Armitage trend test was

used to evaluate differences in the prevalence of back pain among age groups, and the chi-square test was used to evaluate differences among categories of number of vertebral deformities. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the associations of type and number of vertebral deformity with back pain in the previous month; results are presented as odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Data analyses were performed with commercially available software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Results The mean (SD) of age and BMI were 64.4 (9.6) years and 23.4 (3.5) kg/m2, respectively (Table 1). Fifteen percent of women had at least one vertebral deformity and 74 % had vertebral osteoarthritis. Forty-nine percent of women reported at least one painful joint at nonspine sites and 91 % were postmenopausal. The prevalence of upper back pain and low back pain were 19.2 % and 19.4 %, respectively (Table 2).


generally felt that a severity response form


generally felt that a severity response format would be more appropriate. Following completion of the first-stage cognitive debriefing interviews, the research team decided to focus the content of OPAQ-PF on physical function as a measure of the impact of osteoporosis, concentrating on the domains of mobility (walking, carrying, and climbing), physical positions (bending, reaching, picking up, standing, and sitting), and transfers (getting in and out of bed, chairs, and vehicles, and on and off the toilet). This led to the removal of items addressing fear of falling, Ilomastat chemical structure independence, and symptoms. As a result, the instrument generated at the end of the first stage of phase 2 had 16 items in three domains (mobility, physical positions, and transfers) and included a five-point scale that was used throughout the questionnaire: ‘no difficulty’; ‘a Talazoparib concentration little difficulty’; ‘some difficulty’; ‘a lot of difficulty’; and ‘severe difficulty’. This instrument was used in the second stage of phase 2. Second stage: patient demographics Demographic data for the 18 participants (eight in diversity VS-4718 group 1, five in group 2, and five in group 3) recruited for this stage of the study are shown in Table 1. As in the first stage, this cohort was predominantly white (83 %), with a mean (±SD) age of 70.0 ± 9.2 years and a mean disease duration of 6.0 ± 4.1 years.

Twelve of the 18 patients had sustained a total of 16 fractures. The predominant fracture site in this cohort was the hip (n = 5). The remaining fractures were distributed among spine (n = 3), wrist (n = 1), ankle (n = 1), distal forearm (n = 1), humerus (n = 2), ribs (n = 1), pelvis (n = 1), and foot/toe (n = 1). Comorbid conditions included osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, and restless legs syndrome. Second stage: concept elicitation In the second stage of phase 2, saturation was achieved after the 13th concept elicitation interview. Concept elicitation data supporting the Chlormezanone final version of OPAQ-PF are summarized in Table 2. First- and second-stage interview data are presented

together. The results demonstrate widespread support for all items in the domains of mobility, physical positions, and transfers. Second stage: cognitive debriefing Cognitive debriefing results obtained in the first stage of phase 2 reflect participants’ thoughts regarding the design of the questionnaire, the language used, its applicability, the ease with which the instructions could be interpreted, response options, and the recall period. The questionnaire underwent further iterative modifications during the second stage of phase 2 as a result of participants’ feedback. These modifications included removing one item, re-wording of items, and the addition of examples for clarification. As in the first stage of phase 2, all modifications were tracked in an item-tracking matrix.

It is estimated that 50% of all patients with a primary colorecta

It is estimated that 50% of all patients with a primary colorectal tumour will in due course develop hepatic metastases [2]. Once a primary malignancy has spread to the liver, the prognosis of many of these patients deteriorates significantly. Potentially curative treatment

options for hepatic metastases consist of subtotal hepatectomy or, in certain cases, radiofrequency ablation. VRT752271 Unfortunately, only 20-30% of patients are eligible for these potentially curative treatment options, mainly because hepatic metastases are often multiple and in an advanced stage at the time of presentation [3]. The majority of patients are therefore left with palliative treatment options. Palliative therapy consists primarily of systemic chemotherapy. In spite of the many promising developments on cytostatic and targeted biological agents over the last ten years, there are still certain tumour types that do not respond adequately Sotrastaurin in vivo and the long-term survival rate for patients with unresectable metastatic liver disease remains low [4–8]. Moreover, systemic chemotherapy can be associated with substantial side effects that lie in the non-specific nature of this treatment. Cytostatic agents are distributed over the entire body, destroying cells that divide rapidly, both tumour cells and healthy cells. For these reasons, a significant need for new treatment options is recognized. A relatively recently developed therapy for primary and secondary

liver cancer is radioembolization with yttrium-90 microspheres ( 90Y-RE). 90Y-RE is a minimally invasive procedure during which radioactive microspheres are instilled selectively into the hepatic artery using a catheter. The high-energy beta-radiation emitting microspheres subsequently strand in the arterioles (mainly) of

the tumour, and a tumoricidal radiation absorbed dose is delivered. The clinical results of this form of internal radiation therapy are promising [9, 10]. The only currently clinically available microspheres for radioembolization loaded with 90Y are made of either glass (TheraSphere ®, MDS Nordion Inc., Kanata, Ontario Canada) or resin (SIR-Spheres ®, SIRTeX Medical Ltd., Sydney, New South Wales, Australia). Although 90Y-RE is evermore used and considered a safe and effective treatment, 90Y-MS have a drawback: following administration the actual biodistribution (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate cannot be accurately visualized. For this reason, holmium-166 loaded poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres ( 166Ho-PLLA-MS) have been developed at our centre [11, 12]. Like 90Y, 166Ho emits high-energy beta particles to eradicate tumour cells but 166Ho also emits low-energy (81 keV) gamma photons which allows for nuclear imaging. As a consequence, visualization of the microspheres is feasible. This is very useful for three main reasons. Firstly, prior to administration of the treatment dose, a small scout dose of 166Ho-PLLA-MS can be administered for prediction of the distribution of the treatment dose.

Reactions mixtures were then held at 10°C 8 μL of the PCR amplif

Reactions mixtures were then held at 10°C. 8 μL of the PCR amplification mixture was analyzed by gel electrophoresis in a 0.8% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide (1.0 μg/mL) and photographed under U.V.

transillumination. Purification and sequencing of PCR mip products PCR mip products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis in a 0.8% agarose gel (50 mL) stained with 3 μL SYBR Safe DNA gel strain (Invitrogen). DNA products were visualized under blue U.V. transillumination and picked up with a band of agarose gel. Then PCR products were purified using GeneCleanR Turbo Kit (MP Biomedicals) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Finally, the purified PCR products were suspended in 10 μL sterile water and then stored at −20°C. Sequencing was performed by GATC Biotech SARL MDV3100 (Mulhouse, France). PFGE subtyping Legionella isolates

were subtyped by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method as described previously [26]. Briefly, legionellae were treated with proteinase K (50 mg/mL) in TE buffer (10 mM Tris–HCl and 1 mM EDTA, pH 8) for 24 h at 55°C, and DNA was digested with 20 IU of SfiI restriction enzyme (Boehringer Mannheim, Meylan, France) for 16 h at 50°C. Fragments of DNA were separated in a 0.8% agarose gel prepared and run in 0.5× Tris-borate-EDTA buffer (pH 8.3) in a contour-clamped homogeneous field apparatus (CHEF DRII system; Bio-Rad, Ivry sur Seine, France) with a constant voltage of 150 V. Runs were carried out with increasing pulse times (2 to 25 s) at 10°C for 11 h and increasing selleck pulse times (35 to 60 s) at 10°C for 9 h. Then, the gels were stained for 30 min with a ethidium bomide solution and PFGE patterns were analyzed with GelComparII software (Applied Maths, Saint-Martens-Latem, Belgium). Quantification of Legionella virulence towards the amoeba PR171 Acanthamoeba castellanii Legionellae

were grown on BCYE agar and A. castellanii cells in PYG P-type ATPase medium (Moffat and Tompkins, 1992) for five days at 30°C prior to infection. A. castellanii cells were first seeded in plates of 24 multiwell to a final concentration of 5 × 106 cells per ml in PY medium (PYG without glucose. Plates were incubated during two hours at 30°C to allow amoeba adhesion. Then, Legionellae were added to an MOI (“multiplicity of infection”) of 5 (in duplicate). In order to induce the adhesion of bacterial cells to the monolayer of amoeba cells, plates were spun at 2000 × g for 10 min and incubated for 1 h at 30°C. Non-adherent bacteria were removed by four successive washings of PY medium. This point was considered as the initial point of infection (T0) and the plates were incubated at 30°C. Extracellular cultivable bacteria released from amoebae were quantified at 1 day and 2 days post-infection as follows. Aliquots (100 μL) of the supernatants were taken and diluted in sterile water to the final 10-6 dilution.

These patients should undergo CT scanning with IV contrast of the

These patients should undergo CT scanning with IV contrast of the abdomen and pelvis with the exception of pregnant women where ultrasound is recommended [50]. CT scanning has a high sensitivity and specificity in confirming the diagnosis and identifying patients who are candidates for therapeutic PCD[51, 52]. CT scanning also excludes other causes of left lower quadrant abdominal pain (e.g. leaking abdominal aortic aneurism

or an ovarian abscess), Mizoribine research buy but is not click here reliable in differentiating acute diverticulitis from colon malignancy [53]. Patients who require an emergency operation This decision mostly pertains to patients with stage III and stage IV diverticulitis who present with signs of sepsis and need an emergency operation for source control.

The timing and type of source control is unclear. Traditionally, all of these patients were taken expediently to the OR. However, there has been a shift in this paradigm with the recognition that operating in the setting of septic shock sets the stage for postoperative AKI, MOF, prolonged ICU stays and dismal long-term outcomes [40, 44, 45]. Specifically, we believe patients in septic shock benefit from pre-operative optimization. This takes 2–3 hours [54, 55]. It starts with obtaining two large bore learn more IV lines through which broad spectrum antibiotics and a bolus of isotonic crystalloids (20 ml/kg) are administered. A central line (via the internal jugular vein placed under ultrasound guidance) and an arterial line are concurrently placed. With ongoing volume loading, CVP is increased to above 10 cmH2O. Bacterial neuraminidase At this point the patient is intubated and ventilation optimized. Norepinephrine is titrated to maintain MAP >65 mm Hg and if high doses are required, stress dose steroids and low dose vasopressin are administered. Electrolyte abnormalities are corrected and blood products are administered based on institutional guidelines. Lactate and mixed venous hemoglobin saturations are measured and trended to assess the adequacy of the resuscitative

efforts. Once the patient is stable enough to tolerate OR transport and general anesthesia, he/she should be transported to the OR for a source control operation. After the patient is in the OR and under general anesthesia, the surgeon needs to reassess whether the patient is still in septic shock. If so, the OR team should be informed that a DCL is going to be performed (described above). They should anticipate a short operation (roughly 30–45 minutes) and get the supplies necessary for a TAC. While the role of DCL in this setting is controversial, it should not be confused with the concept of a planned relaparotomy (described above) [32]. At the second operation, we believe that the decision to perform a delayed anastomosis should be individualized based on the current physiology, the condition of bowel, patient co-morbidities, and surgeon experience.

(A) Western blot analysis of BMPR-IB expression in parental gliom

(A) Western blot analysis of BMPR-IB expression in parental glioma cells, control vector–AAV and AAV-BMPR-IB-infected cells. (B) Cell cycle distribution analysis histogram. (Values are expressed as the mean±SD, n = 3. *, P < 0.05). Effects of BMPR-IB overexpression and knock-down on the growth of glioblastoma cells in vitro After 5 days of BMPR-IB overexpression or knock-down,

the anchorage-independent growth of BMPR-IB-overexpressing LY333531 purchase glioblastoma cells was drastically inhibited, as shown by a decrease in the number and volume of colonies on soft agar buy RXDX-101 compared with control cells, and the anchorage-independent growth of SF763 cells treated with siBMPR-IB was 2 times as high as that of the si-control-treated cells. BMPR-IB overexpression decreased the colony numbers of U251 and U87 by 55%

and 66%, and BMPR-IB knock-down caused an approximate 94% increase in colony numbers compared with controls(Figure 3A, B). Figure 3 Determination of anchorage-independent growth of human glioma cells with altered BMPR-IB expression using a soft-agar colony formation assay. (A) Microphotographs of colonies. (B) Columns, the mean of the colony numbers on triplicate plates from AZD5363 concentration a representative experiment (conducted twice); bars, SD. *, P < 0.001, as determined using Student’s t-test. Effects of BMPR-IB overexpression and knock-down on the differentiation of glioblastoma cells in vitro The contrast photomicrographs showed that the glioblastoma cell lines U87 and U251 were prone to differentiate after 2 days of rAAV-BMPR-IB infection. Conversely, BMPR-IB knock-down inhibited the outgrowth of neurites in SF763 cells (Figure 4A). Immunofluorescence analysis showed that BMPR-IB infection increased the expression of GFAP protein, which is a recognized

marker of astrocytic differentiation, whereas BMPR-IB knock-down decreased PI3K inhibitor the expression of GFAP protein (Figure 4A). Further investigation using western blot analysis showed that BMPR-IB overexpression increased the expression of GFAP protein and inhibited the expression of Nestin, which is a marker of CNS precursor cells. In addition, BMPR-IB knock-down decreased the expression of GFAP protein and increased the expression of Nestin protein (Figure 4B). Figure 4 Induction of differentiation by BMPR-IB in human glioma cell lines. (A) After infection and transfection with rAAV-BMPR-IB and si-BMPR-IB, the expression of GFAP of glioblastoma cells was detected by immunofluorescence (left), and the morphological alterations were examined by phase contrast microscope(right). (B) WB analysis showed that BMPR-IB infection induced the expression of endogenous GFAP and inhibited the expression of Nestin, whereas BMPR-IB knock-down decreased the expression of GFAP and increased the expression of Nestin.

In an in vivo situation, we can expect such dead cells to be clea

In an in vivo situation, we can expect such dead cells to be cleared rapidly by the host immune system.

Non-replicating genetically modified filamentous phage which exerted high killing efficiency on cells with minimal release of endotoxin is reported [13]. Higher Salubrinal in vivo survival rate correlated with reduced inflammatory response in case of infected mice treated with genetically modified phage [14]. A phage genetically engineered to produce an enzyme that degrades extracellular polymeric substances and disperses biofilms is reported [15]. Although temperate phages present the problem of lysogeny and the associated risk of transfer of virulence factors through bacterial DNA transduction; we have used a temperate phage as a model for this study as the prophage status simplifies genetic manipulation. Because S. aureus strains are known to Veliparib harbor multiple prophages, which could potentially interfere with recombination and engineering events, we elected to lysogenize

phage P954 in a prophage-free host, S. aureus RN4220. Our strategy was to identify lysogens that harbored the recombinant endolysin-deficient phages, based on detection of phage P954 genes and the cat marker gene by PCR analysis (Figure 1). In the recombination experiment, selleck chemicals llc the 96 chloramphenicol resistant colonies obtained represented recombinant endolysin-inactivated prophage some of which lysed upon Mitomycin C induction. We suspected that the parent phage could also have lysogenized Bay 11-7085 along with the recombinant phage. We overcame the problem by repeating

the induction of chloramphenicol resistant lysogens and lysogenization of the phages produced. When we assessed the prophage induction pattern and phage progeny release of parent and endolysin-deficient phage P954 lysogens, we found that the absorbance of the culture remained unaltered and the extracellular phage titer was minimal with the recombinant phage lysogen. We observed a low phage titer 3 to 4 hours after induction, presumably due to natural disintegration and lysis of a small percentage of the cell population. In contrast, we observed lysis of the culture by the parent phage with increasing phage titer in the lysate, as expected (Figure 2). Complementation of the lysis-deficient phenotype was achieved using a heterologous phage P926 from our collection. Supplying the endolysin gene in trans allowed the recombinant phage to form plaques (Figure 3b, d). This was used to determine titers of the endolysin-deficient phage throughout our study, and provided an excellent method for efficient phage enrichment. Use of a heterologous phage endolysin enabled the recombinant phage to exhibit the lysis-deficient phenotype even after several rounds of multiplication. In vitro activity of the endolysin-deficient phage against MSSA and MRSA was comparable to that of the parent phage (Figure 4). Further, the recombinant phage was able to rescue mice from fatal MRSA infection (Figure 5), similar to the parent phage (data not shown).