Adhesive tape was placed sticky-side down over the fungal colony,

Adhesive tape was placed sticky-side down over the fungal colony, gently pressed and then removed. The fungal-tape samples were incubated with the lectin for 1 h at 4 °C. Lectin binding was visualised using 3,3-diaminobendizine (DAB) and hydrogen peroxidase. There

was a high expression of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine on the cell wall surface of all fungi species tested, whereas the expression of l-fucose, d-galactose and glucose/mannose demonstrated inter-specific variations. The lectin-binding assay presented in this article eliminates many of the laborious steps involved in other protocols. The amount and quality of the mycelium and spores immobilised by the adhesive tapes were suitable for obtaining the

carbohydrate profile in glycoconjugates of the cell wall surface of filamentous fungi. “
“Zoophilic dermatophytosis is a major public and veterinary health problem globally widespread among cattle. R788 cost To identify the causative agent and geographical distribution of dermatophytes involved in cattle ringworm and to establish if they would be related to human diseases in Iran, a study was carried out on 6789 heads of cows and 130 herdsmen during 2006–2007. Samples were taken from 380 cattle and 43 herdsmen with suspected dermatophytosis. The causative agents were identified macroscopically and microscopically by KOH PD0325901 manufacturer examination and culture isolation. Only 352 cases of dermatophytosis were identified in cattle and Trichophyton verrucosum was the exclusive fungus isolated from animals. Moreover, 27 cases of human dermatophytosis were identified and T. verrucosum was the prevalent causative agent for dermatophytosis in the body, scalp, foot, nail and groin of the patients. The obtained results showed that T. verrucosum was the predominant cause of dermatophytosis in livestock and dairy farmers. There is a scarcity

of information on isolation and identification of the epizoonotic agents of dermatophytoses in cattle in Iran. This study showed the occurrence of dermatophytosis in humans and cattle and confirms that the dermatozoonoses are responsible for predominant forms of the disease in people who were in contact with cattle. “
“Invasive candidiasis and mucosal candidiasis are among the most important Atazanavir health care associated infections; in its invasive form, candidiasis is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Among the currently available antifungal agents, the echinocandins are the among the most potent agents against Candida species. As a class, these agents are well tolerated and rapidly fungicidal. Among the echinocandins, micafungin has been studied most extensively. This paper reviews the results from the largest studies of micafungin among patients with invasive and esophageal candidiasis, and supports the use of echinocandins in this increasingly common disorder.

, 1997) From this study, it was determined that P66 is a voltage

, 1997). From this study, it was determined that P66 is a voltage-dependent, nonspecific porin with a single channel conductance measuring at 9.6 nS in 1 M KCl, which is indicative of very large 2.6-nm pores (Skare et al., 1997). P66 orthologs

from other Borrelia spp. display similar biophysical characteristics, suggesting that both Lyme disease and relapsing fever spirochetes possess functional P66 orthologs (Barcena-Uribarri et al., 2010). P66 has also been shown to function as an adhesin that binds the mammalian cell receptors, β3 chain and β1 chain integrins (Coburn et al., 1999; ��-catenin signaling Defoe & Coburn, 2001; Coburn & Cugini, 2003). It was further demonstrated that β3 integrin binding was mediated by a central region of the P66 protein (residues 142–384; Coburn et al., 1999) and that a single peptide heptamer within this 242-residue region was sufficient for inhibiting attachment of B. burgdorferi to αIIbβ3 integrins (Defoe & Ibrutinib mw Coburn, 2001). Additional verification of P66 as a β3 integrin ligand was also provided by in vivo phage display experiments (Antonara et al., 2007). The virulence-associated cell adhesion properties of P66, in addition to its immunogenicity, have created an intense interest in

P66 as a potential Lyme disease vaccine candidate. Interestingly, indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) and cDNA microarray data have demonstrated that P66 is upregulated in fed ticks and in the mammalian host, but not in unfed

ticks (Brooks et al., 2003; Cugini et al., 2003), see more suggesting that B. burgdorferi specifically upregulates expression of the protein to aid in host cell attachment and/or tissue dissemination during mammalian infection. The chromosomal P13 protein, which is encoded by ORF bb0034, is a 13-kDa surface antigen first identified in B. burgdorferi strain B313. Strain B313 lacks almost all linear plasmids, which encode a majority of the B. burgdorferi outer surface lipoproteins (Sadziene et al., 1995). Anti-P13 monoclonal antibodies inhibited growth of strain B313 but not wild-type B. burgdorferi cells, suggesting that the abundant outer surface lipoproteins expressed by the linear plasmids in wild-type B. burgdorferi masked P13 epitopes and probably interfered with earlier identification of this integral OMP (Sadziene et al., 1995). Sequence analysis and epitope mapping indicated that P13 is a membrane-integrated protein with three transmembrane regions and a surface-exposed immunogenic loop (Noppa et al., 2001; Pinne et al., 2004). Additionally, combined results from mass spectrometry (MS), in vitro translation, as well as N- and C-terminal amino acid sequencing strongly indicated that P13 is posttranslationally processed at both termini, with an N-terminal modification and a C-terminal 28-residue cleavage (Noppa et al., 2001).

The genus Gibbsiella, which was isolated from oak trees displayin

The genus Gibbsiella, which was isolated from oak trees displaying extensive stem bleeding, was recently reported by Brady et al. (1). The genus Gibbsiella consists of only one species named Gibbsiella quercinecans (NCPPB 4470T).

The genus Gibbsiella, which is a Gram negative, rod-shaped, non-spore forming and non-motile bacterium, has been closely related to genera Serratia, Palbociclib manufacturer Kluyvera, Klebsiella, and Raoultella (> 97%) by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. However, the genus Gibbsiella forms a distinct lineage within the family Enterobacteriaceae, this having been confirmed by both gyrB and rpoB gene sequencing. Streptococcus mutans is known as a primary pathogen of dental caries in humans (2). One of its virulence properties is the

ability to produce exopolysaccharides from sucrose (3, 4). The oral cavities of many animals are colonized by a large number of bacteria, including Metformin clinical trial exopolysaccharide-synthesizing strains such as S. mutans. In this study, the microflora of the bear (Ursus thibetanus) oral cavity was investigated, focusing on exopolysaccharide-synthesizing strains. The exopolysaccharide-synthesizing strains selected for this study were Gram negative isolates from the oral cavities of bears. The strains formed large, raised, sticky colonies with irregular margins on mitis salivarius agar (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA). During this research, a non-pigmented, non-motile, non-spore-forming Gibbsiella like strain, designated NUM 1720T, was isolated from the oral cavity of bears. The strain

was grown at 37°C under aerobic Pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 1 conditions on brain-heart infusion agar (Difco Laboratories). The isolates were subjected to further taxonomic study. DNA was extracted from the bacterial cultures by using the Promega Genome kit (Promega, Madison WI, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. To determine the phylogenetic affinity of the isolate, the almost-complete 16S rRNA gene was sequenced and subjected to a comparative analysis. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified using a PCR with primers 27f (5′-AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG-3′; E. coli positions 8–27) and 1525r (5′-AAAGGAGGTGATCCAGCC-3′; E. coli positions 1543–1525) according to the method described by Shinoda et al. (5). The PCR products were directly sequenced using a BigDye Terminator v1.1 cycle sequencing kit (Applied Biosystems, Stockholm, Sweden) and automatic DNA sequencer (3130 genetic analyzer; Applied Biosystems). The closest known relatives of the novel isolates were identified by performing database searches. Identification of the closest phylogenetic neighbors and calculation of pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were achieved using the EzTaxon server ( (6). The topologies of the trees were evaluated by performing a bootstrap analysis of the sequence data, using CLUSTAL W software (7). Sequence similarity values were calculated manually.

Of interest, the Treg-mediated inhibition of Tconv proliferation

327, p<0.05, MS: r2=0.446, p<0.05). Of interest, the Treg-mediated inhibition of Tconv proliferation also positively correlated with IL-7Rα-MFIs on Tconv (HC: r2=0.175, p<0.05 MS: r2=0.587, p<0.01; Fig. 3), suggesting that IL-7Rα expression by affecting

frequencies of circulating RTE-Treg also interferes with Treg function. Proliferative responses of stimulated and unstimulated Tconv were comparable in samples obtained from MS patients and healthy donors. We measured sIL-7Rα in plasma specimens obtained from MS patients (n=20, 12 with active disease, 8 in remission) and age- and sex-matched control inidividuals (n=17) using an in-house ELISA protocol and IL-7 levels with a conventional ELISA Kit as described in the Materials and methods section. We found an inverse correlation between IL-7 plasma levels and IL-7Rα-MFIs on total Tconv in patients with MS (IL-7: HC: r2=0.142, p=0.103; MS: r2=0.252, p=0.027;

Fig. 4B). Concentrations of both IL-7 and sIL-7Rα were selleck chemicals elevated in 20 patient-derived samples as compared to 17 HC-derived this website samples, which was statistically significant for IL-7 only (IL-7 [pg/mL]: HC 5.1±1.5, MS 11.2±5.9, p=0.050; sIL-7Rα [ng/mL]: HC 107.5±40.6, MS 145.0±53.7, p=0.161; Fig. 4A). Enhanced IL-7 and sIL-7Rα plasma levels were detectable in both patients with active and inactive disease. TSLP and TSLPR-expressing MDCs were previously shown to be critically involved in thymic Treg development 13. Therefore, we analyzed surface expression levels of TSLPR on circulating MDCs in blood samples obtained from MS patients (n=12, 8

with active disease, 4 in remission) and age- and sex-matched normal donors (n=11). TSLPR-MFIs were significantly lower on patient-derived MDCs (HC 96.0±15.9, MS 59.6±17.4; p<0.01; Fig. 5) and did not differ between RRMS patients with active or stable P-type ATPase disease. In addition, expression levels of IL-7Rα and TSLPR strongly correlated in both study cohorts (MS: r2=0.57, p<0.05; HC: r2=0.61, p<0.05; not depicted). It was previously shown, that 10–30% of peripheral T cells and up to 99% of human Treg express two distinct TCR-Vα chains 21. Here, in both study cohorts (HC: n=33, MS: n=56) approximately a quarter of total Tconv harbored TCRs with dual specificity (HC: 31.9±14.0%, MS: 29.6±18.2%, p=0.47). In contrast, 85.6±17.1% of control-derived, but only 55.8±31.2% of patient-derived Treg expressed two TCR-Vα chains (p<0.01; Fig. 6A). Overall, there was a strong correlation of IL-7Rα-MFIs of Tconv and TSLPR-MFIs on MDCs with the amount of dual TCR specific Treg in both patients and control donors (IL-7Rα: HC: r2=0.247, p=0.011; MS: r2=0.355, p=0.008, Fig. 6B; TSLPR: HC: r2=0.214, p=0.031; MS: r2=0.333, p=0.016; not depicted). Screening for rs6897932-SNP 15–18 associated with MS, type 1 diabetes and chronic inflammatory arthropathies 19 was performed by SNAP-shot PCR.

Covariates were included in the multivariate models based upon cl

Covariates were included in the multivariate models based upon clinical importance. The power of the statistics for the RDW differences between the quartiles of prostate volume was 1.0. Statistical analysis was performed using the PASW Statistics 18.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. The demographic characteristics of the 942 patients were analyzed in four groups that were stratified according to the quartiles of prostate volume. These characteristics are summarized in Table 1. Age, IPSS, storage and voiding subscores,

quality of life (QOL) score, PSA, voided volume, peak flow and PVR were significantly different between patients in prostate volume quartiles. SCH727965 cell line The mean prostate volume was 66.6 ± 34.2 mL. For this registry cohort, the mean RDW, WBC, CRP, and ESR were 14.8 ± 1.7%, 7.7 ± 2.1 × 103, 0.8 ± 2.0 mg/dL, and 13.4 ± 12.9 mm/h respectively. The

RDW was significantly related to the WBC and CRP (P = 0.001 and P = 0.014, respectively). Red cell distribution width was significantly correlated with IPSS (P = 0.012), voiding (P = 0.002) and storage subscores (P = 0.020). The relationships between the prostate volume and RDW, WBC, CRP, and ESR are shown in Table 2. The RDW and WBC were significantly associated with the prostate volume in the multivariate linear regression model that was adjusted for age and hemoglobin. The RDW was significantly different between patients in prostate volume quartiles (Table 2). The relationship between RDW and prostate volume can be seen in Figure 1. The IPSS was significantly correlated with the RDW, CRP, and ESR. The RDW had a significant relationship to the IPSS after only adjusting for age. However, in the model adjusted for both age and prostate volume the RDW was not significantly related to the IPSS (P = 0.081) (Table 3). The RDW was significantly elevated in patients choosing to go to surgery rather

than medical therapy (RDW = 15.3% vs. 14.6%, P = 0.001). The relationship between the RDW and the treatment type Tenofovir mw (surgical or medical) is shown in Table 4. The RDW and PSA were significantly associated with the surgical treatment in the multivariate linear regression model that was adjusted for age and prostate volume. This study has disclosed a new scenario for the clinical usefulness of the RDW. The new data from this study suggest a correlation between an increased RDW and prostate volume was. The association remained after adjusting for age and hemoglobin. A graded and independent association of the baseline RDW with the prostate volume was also identified. Finally, the RDW was found to be increased in patients going to surgery for the treatment of BPH. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a relationship between prostate volume and an elevated RDW.

© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc Microsurgery 33:638–645, 2013 “

© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 33:638–645, 2013. “
“Breast reconstruction using a free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap or

a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is a challenge in patients with a vertical midline abdominal scar due to the poor perfusion of the lower abdominal skin ellipse across the midline. see more In such patients, only one half of the abdominal skin ellipse can be used with certainty, and this limits the amount of tissue available for reconstructing the breast. Two cases of breast reconstruction in patients with a lower midline abdominal scar are presented using the DIEP flap, in which the poor perfusion across the midline scar was overcome by a technique of crossover anastomoses between the two deep inferior epigastric pedicles. Reliable perfusion of the entire lower abdominal skin ellipse was

achieved. This crossover anastomoses technique overcomes the poor perfusion imposed by the vertical midline abdominal scar and enables DIEP flap breast reconstruction to be offered to women with midline abdominal scars. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2010. “
“The aim of this study was to elucidate the exact MK-2206 purchase course of the terminal branches of the plantar digital artery (PDA) to the nail bed of the second toe. Thirteen second toes from seven fresh Korean cadavers were dissected (age range 74–92 years, four men and three women). The terminal segmental branches (TSB) branched off from the PDA at 7.6 ± 0.7 mm proximal to the nail fold. The fibro-osseous hiatus branch (FHB) branched off from the PDA at 3.3 ± 0.7 mm from the nail fold. They were 3.8 ± 1.0 mm lateral to the paronychium. Diameters of TSB and FHB were 0.8 ± 0.2 mm and 0.7 ± 0.1 mm, respectively. Diameter of PDA was 1.4 ± 0.2 mm. Surgeons should stay at least 4 mm proximal Oxymatrine to the nail fold to avoid injury to the terminal branch. We believe

that second toenail with minimum amount of soft tissue may be transferred using FHB-based vascularized toenail flap. Perfusion study and clinical application should be followed. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2010. “
“The prevailing treatment for distal third lower extremity defects is with autologous free tissue transfers. In the trauma patient, these reconstructions are wrought with challenges, including the selection of appropriate recipient vessels, avoiding the zone of injury, and choosing the appropriate flap for transfer, all while maintaining perfusion to the foot. With distal defects and a large zone of injury, the free flap pedicle may need additional length to cover the defect and reach the recipient vessels without excess tension. The creation of an arteriovenous loop from an autologous vein graft is the usual solution. We present a case where additional pedicle length was needed to have a free flap completely cover a distal leg defect and connect to the anterior tibial vessels proximally.

Screening based on title and abstract identified 56 citations for

Screening based on title and abstract identified 56 citations for full-text review (Fig. 1). Additional five studies[25-27, 39, 53] were identified from reference lists of the identified articles and from other databases. Of the 56 potentially relevant articles,

32 were excluded for reasons given in Figure 1, leaving a total of 24 studies[24-47] that met the inclusion criteria. Twenty one studies[24-30, 32, 34-38, 40-47] reported associations C59 wnt research buy between use of statins and AKI, and 14 studies[28, 31-35, 37, 39-41, 43-46] reported associations between use of statins and AKI requiring RRT. Five studies[24-28] used RCT design, and the rest applied a cohort design.[29-47] Only one RCT[28] defined AKI as the primary endpoint. The other four RCTs defined postoperative thrombocytosis,[24] postoperative inflammatory responses,[25]

postoperative myocardial injury,[26] and the number of postoperative endothelial progenitor cells[27] as primary endpoints. Among the cohort studies, only three used prospective design; the remaining studies were retrospective in design. As for the study population, two studies involved nation-wide populations, while most of the other studies were conducted at one single centre. Among the two population-based studies, one was conducted in Canada,[43] and the other in the USA.[47] We assessed the quality selleck chemicals llc of included studies with the Jadad scale.[54] The study conducted by Prowle JR and colleagues[28]

had the highest score on the Jadad scale. The results were summarized in the Appendix 1 (Table App1). The studies varied in their types of surgery, mean age, and case definition (Table 1). The types of surgery were restricted to cardiac or vascular surgery in most studies. Specific type, dosage, and duration of preoperative statin therapy Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase were not available in most studies. In contrast to AKI defined by database codes, AKI defined by a pre-specified increase of serum creatinine level was regarded as ‘AKI defined by laboratory criteria’. Among these, there were seven studies[28, 37, 38, 41, 44-46] using AKIN or RIFLE criteria[48, 49] as the definition for AKI. In all studies, the definition of AKI requiring RRT was based on clinical judgment without additional objective laboratory criteria. Specific statin type available i Dosage and duration not available Increase of sCr level > 30% (AKIN stage 1) Atorvastatin 20 mg/day or simvastatin 20 mg/day for at least 6 months Started before surgery Type, dosage and duration not available At least one dose of statin between admission and surgery In the 21 studies reporting the association of statin use and AKI, the incidence of AKI ranged from 1.88%[43] to 52.17%[44] (Table 1). The pooled incidence of AKI for all 21 studies was 4.89%. The pooled incidence of AKI among statin user and nonstatin user were 6.13% and 4.28%, respectively (Table 2).

Interestingly, a trend toward a dose–response relationship betwee

Interestingly, a trend toward a dose–response relationship between vitamin D status and cognitive measures was also observed with subjects in the lowest quartiles of serum vitamin D performing lower on the Mini-Mental Status Examination than those in the upper quartiles, a finding that has been replicated in other Osimertinib datasheet studies [211]. These studies do not demonstrate causality between serum vitamin D levels and cognitive status

especially given that vitamin D status may be a surrogate for other lifestyle factors that are difficult to control. That being said, with the increasing number of people affected by AD and the relative safety and cost-effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation, it may be Small molecule library reasonable to consider exploring a possible link between vitamin D and AD more

closely in well-controlled, prospective, longitudinal studies and/or clinical trials. Alzheimer’s disease susceptibility demonstrates a heritable component with recent GWAS pointing to an increasing number of genes of modest effect associated with late onset AD [212]. Genetic studies have supported a role for vitamin D in AD risk as evidenced by association of the disease with genetic variation in the vitamin D receptor gene (Vdr) [213-215]. The observation that VDR-binding sites are closely associated with several candidate AD susceptibility genes adds further support to this claim; however, detailed study exploring the role of vitamin D on gene expression and disease susceptibility is needed. The brain function of a selection of the AD susceptibility genes with associated VDR binding sites is outlined in Tables 4 [216-225]. This review has highlighted the extensively diverse role of vitamin D and its metabolites in both nervous system health and disease. The convergence of in vitro, ex vivo, and animal model data provides compelling evidence that vitamin D has a crucial role Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin in proliferation,

differentiation, neurotrophism, neuroprotection, neurotransmission, and neuroplasticity. Animal models have also contributed to our knowledge and understanding of the consequences of vitamin D deficiency on brain development and its implications for adult psychiatric and neurological diseases. The role of vitamin D likely goes beyond its direct function on cellular processes in that this secosteroid may influence the expression of genes via vitamin D response elements. The culmination of epidemiological, neuropathological, experimental, and molecular genetic findings certainly implicate vitamin D in influencing susceptibility to a number of psychiatric and neurological diseases, such as schizophrenia, autism, Parkinson’s disease, ALS, MS, and AD. Much more needs to be done to unravel how vitamin D deficiency may alter disease risk.

Among various miRNA, miR-155 has been associated with the regulat

Among various miRNA, miR-155 has been associated with the regulation of different immune-related processes, such as haematopoiesis,14 B-cell and T-cell differentiation,15 cancer16 and innate immunity.12 The miR-155 is processed from an exon of a non-coding RNA transcribed from the B-cell Integration Cluster located on chromosome 21, showing strong sequence homology Ruxolitinib in vivo among humans, mice and hens, and is highly expressed in cells of lymphoid and myeloid origin.17 Recently, miR-155 has been identified

and characterized as a component of macrophage and monocyte response to different types of inflammatory mediators, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interferon-β (IFN-β), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)].12,18,19 Many of the miR-155 target transcripts identified so far are pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory proteins, such as the Fas-associated death domain protein, IκB kinase ε, inositol 5-phosphatase 1 and the suppressor of cytokine signalling-1 (SOCS-1). SOCS-1 belongs to a family PF-02341066 price of proteins known to regulate the response

of immune cells to cytokines and other inflammatory stimuli, such as LPS, through direct inhibition of the Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) and consequent inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription factors (STAT), as a ‘classical’ negative feedback loop. In addition, the C-terminal SOCS box domain interacts with components of the ubiquitin ligase system and mediates proteasomal degradation of associated proteins, including key elements of other pro-inflammatory pathways, such as the nuclear

factor-κB and Jun N-terminal kinase pathways. Experimental evidence suggests that miR-155 plays a pro-inflammatory role and may be implicated in chronic inflammatory processes, such as those oxyclozanide contributing to cancer and to certain neurodegenerative diseases. Given the similarities between microglia and other cells of the immune system, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, where miR-155 has been found to be up-regulated upon activation,20 in this work we investigated the contribution of miRNA-155 to microglia activation and microglia-mediated immune responses. To our knowledge, this is the first study providing evidence that miR-155 has a strong pro-inflammatory role during microglia activation and is required for SOCS-1 post-transcriptional regulation and progression of the immune response in these cells. Moreover, our results suggest that miR-155 inhibition induces neuronal protection from microglia-induced damage, and miR-155 may therefore constitute an interesting and promising target for the control of neuronal inflammation.

The present survey of practice demonstrates important areas of co

The present survey of practice demonstrates important areas of consensus that should be viewed as integral care standards, as well as indicating areas in which further interventional research

should be focused to improve patient management. Overall, the comparison of these surveys of practice in Europe and America demonstrate remarkable similarities in the NVP-BEZ235 research buy care applied to patients with PID. The differences, while few, represent areas for future research and potentially practice improvement. The greater similarity between focused American immunologists and ESID immunologists compared to general allergy and immunology physicians within the United States demonstrates a continued role for specialized practitioners as well as a sustained need for dissemination of information. Funding for this survey was provided by the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, the European Society for Immunodeficiencies and the Immune Deficiency Foundation. This study was also supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF 01 EO 0803). Authors H.S. Hernandez-Trujillo, H. Chapel, V.

Lo Re III, L.D. Notarangelo, B. Gathmann, B. Grimbacher, J.M. Boyle, C. Scalchunes high throughput screening compounds and M.L. Boyle have no disclosures to report. V.P. Hernandez-Trujillo MD – Merck Claritin Council Member; Baxter Advisory Group, Speaker Prostatic acid phosphatase and IFIR attendee; CSL Speaker. J.S. Orange – Consultant to: CSL Bhering, Talecris Biotherapeutics, Griffols, Baxter Healthcare; Research grant review committee: Octapharma USA. American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology Immune Deficiency Foundation ID NUMBER: _______ (for internal purposes only) SPECIALIST PHYSICIAN PERSPECTIVES ON PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES (PID) IN EUROPE 2006 1 How much of your clinical practice is devoted to patients with PID or suspected of having PID? _____________________________ __________ patients per week MARK AS MANY AS APPLY IF NONE EVER, SKIP TO Q30a on Page 4 MARK AS MANY AS APPLY NO

RISK (A) LOW RISK (B) MODERATE RISK (C) HIGH RISK (D) HIV Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Prion disease Rotavirus Yet to be discovered pathogens FEW TO NONE (< 5%) (A) SOME (5–50%) (B) MOST (> 50%) (C) ALL OR ALMOST ALL (> 95%) (D) Agammaglobulinaemia XLA Ataxia telangiectasia Chronic granulomatous disease Chronic mucocutanous candidiasis CVIDs complement deficiencies DiGeorge syndrome Hyper-IgM syndromes Hyper-IgE syndrome IgG subclass deficiencies Selective IgA deficiency SCID Severe congenital neutropenia Specific antibody deficiency IFN-γ/IL-12 cytokine axis defect Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome XLP ____________ NUMBER If zero skip to question 18 Questions 9–14 refer specifically to IG administered intravenously.