Between 2001 and 2004, 360 women

Between 2001 and 2004, 360 women better were enrolled in a randomized trial comparing three interventions for smoking cessation: best-practice (BP) counseling alone, BP plus an ultrasound accompanied by information on the potential harmful effects of smoking on the fetus, and motivational interviewing plus the information-guided ultrasound. Eligible women were those who reported cigarette smoking during the past 7 days and were between 16 and 26 weeks gestation. Women were recruited in Houston and Harris County area Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) centers and by advertisement. Details of the study are reported elsewhere (Stotts et al., 2009). Information on average number of cigarettes per day in the past week was collected by questionnaire and was validated by salivary cotinine on three occasions: (a) baseline (between 16 and 26 weeks gestation), (b) EOP (at approximately 36 weeks), and (c) 6 weeks postpartum.

All participants gave informed consent and the study was approved by the University of Texas Health Science Center Houston Institutional Review Board. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is thought to contribute to decreased birth weight by two mechanisms, shortened gestation and fetal growth restriction (Kramer, 1987). As the focus of this analysis was fetal growth restriction, only women with full-term (gestational age at delivery ��37 weeks), singleton pregnancies were included to control for reduced birth weight associated with preterm delivery and multifetal gestation.

Other eligibility criteria for this analysis included availability of saliva cotinine measures at the two time points of interest, baseline and EOP, and information on well-established correlates of infant birth weight, including sex of the Anacetrapib infant, maternal age, parity, education, income, and race/ethnicity. Additionally, in a subset of the cohort, information had been collected on maternal prepregnancy weight, height, and predelivery weight for an ancillary study, providing data on prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. Of the 360 women enrolled in the smoking cessation study, 260 met inclusion criteria. Complete cessation was defined as salivary cotinine <15ng/ml, a cutpoint found to have high sensitivity and specificity (Florescu et al., 2009; Wagenknecht, Burke, Perkins, Haley, & Friedman, 1992), and was used in previous research (Peacock et al., 1998). As this study aimed to observe the effect of change in smoking exposure, women who had salivary cotinine values consistent with nonactive smoking at both time points, baseline and EOP, were excluded. Thirty-five met this criterion, bringing the number to 225 for this analysis.

This finding underscores the need to implement more effective smo

This finding underscores the need to implement more effective smoking cessation interventions targeting this group, such as integrating tobacco treatment choose size into mental health settings and comprehensive tobacco control programs (Prochaska, 2010). Given the low quit rate among persons with mental illness and the fact that the tobacco industry has designed products and marketing strategies to target consumer segments with mental illness (Cook, Wayne, Keithly, & Connolly, 2003; Prochaska, Hall, & Bero, 2008), it is important to conduct research to examine the effectiveness of potential tobacco control policies, in addition to individual treatment approaches (Schroeder, 2009), in reducing smoking among this subgroup.

Also, many mental health providers and administrators believe that tobacco cessation treatment is unrealistic for their clients and will negatively effect on psychiatric symptoms or management (Schroeder & Morris, 2010). Future research evaluating the health and economic burden of smoking for those with mental illness is needed to motivate mental health providers and policy makers to promote and fund smoking cessation treatment for this subgroup. Funding This study was supported by funding from the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program of the University of California (#18XT-0092 and #13KT-0152), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (#K23 DA018691 and #P50 DA09253), and the National Institute of Mental Health (#P30 MH082760). Declaration of Interests None declared. Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to Dr. Teh-wei Hu and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.

However, the authors alone are responsible for the findings.
Cigarette smoking is declining in Norway, a trend shown both in population surveys and official sales statistics of smoking tobacco products (M. Lund & Lindbak, 2007; Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, 2010). Daily smoking has dropped continually since 1973 among men and since 2000 among women. A gender convergence in daily smoking occurred in the late 1990s and has been present since (Norwegian Directorate of Health, 2010). The amount of smoking tobacco consumed annually per adult decreased from 2 to 1.5 kg for men and from 1.6 to 1.3 kg for women in the period 1996�C2007 (K. E. Lund, Lund, & Bryhni, 2009). From 1996 to 2009, daily smoking among 16�C24 years dropped from 30% to 15% (Statistics Norway, 2007).

However, in the adult population, there has been no significant decline Brefeldin_A in smoking rates during the most recent period, causing speculation that a smoking prevalence plateau has been reached. The Norwegian Tobacco Act came into force in 1975, with the most important regulations being a ban on tobacco advertising and age restrictions for buying tobacco. Since then, several tobacco control measures have been introduced.

The number of lymph nodes evaluated ranged between 1 and 61 with

The number of lymph nodes evaluated ranged between 1 and 61 with mean and median of 12 and 11, respectively. MMR status was evaluated by IHC according to MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 expression [38]. Based on this Lenalidomide order analysis, the TMA included 1031 MMR-proficient tumors and 194 MMR-deficient tumors. Table 1 Characteristics of CRC patient cohort (n=1420)*. Overall survival was defined as primary endpoint. Follow-up data were available for 1379 patients with mean/median and IQR event-free follow-up time of 67.7/68 and 45�C97 months. Immunohistochemistry Standard indirect immunoperoxidase procedures were used for immunohistochemistry (IHC; ABC-Elite, Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA). Briefly, slides were dewaxed and rehydrated in distilled water. Endogenous peroxidase activity was blocked using 0.

5% H2O2. Sections were incubated with 10% normal goat serum (DakoCytomation, Carpinteria, CA) for 20 min and incubated with primary antibody at room temperature. Primary antibodies used were specific for MPO (clone 59A5 Novocastra, Newcastle, UK), CD15 (clone Carb-1, Leica Biosystems, Nussloch, Germany), CD16 (clone 2H7, Novocastra), CD68 (clone PG-M1, Dako, Glostrup, Denmark), FOXP3 (clone 236A/E7, Abcam, Cambridge, UK) and CD8 (clone C8/144B, DakoCytomation, Switzerland). Subsequently, sections were incubated with peroxidase-labelled secondary antibody (DakoCytomation) for 30 min at room temperature. For visualization of the antigen, sections were immersed in 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole plus substrate-chromogen (DakoCytomation) for 30 min, and counterstained with Gill��s hematoxylin.

Evaluation of Immunohistochemistry MPO+ and CD15+ tumor infiltrating cells were counted for each punch (approximately one high power [20x] field) by a trained research fellow [R.D.]. Data were independently validated by two additional investigators [L.To. and C.H.] and a high Spearman correlation coefficient (=0.82) and a highly significant (p<0.0001) correlation between measurements was observed. Evaluation of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, CD16, CD68, CD8 and FOXP3 specific stainings in the CRC TMA under investigation was published previously [9], [13], [39]. Flow Cytometry Analyses Following Institutional Review Board approval (63/07), tissues from surgically removed CRC and adjacent normal mucosa were minced, centrifuged, and resuspended in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 5% foetal calf serum, 2 mg/ml collagenase IV, 0.

1 mg/ml hyaluronidase V, and 0.2 mg/ml DNAse I (Sigma Aldrich, Basel, Switzerland). Following a 1 hour digestion, cell suspensions Brefeldin_A were filtered and centrifuged. For phenotypic analysis of surface markers, cells were stained with mAbs for 15 minutes on ice in PBS, washed once with PBS 0.5% FCS, 0.5 M EDTA buffer and fixed in lysis buffer from BD Bioscience (110). Samples were then permeabilized in BD fixation/permeabilization buffer.

Figure 5 Percentage of sequences associated with the metabolism o

Figure 5 Percentage of sequences associated with the metabolism of aromatic compounds in the pygmy loris microbiome. KEGG Pathway Assignment Pathway assignment was performed based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). selleckchem First, the 78,619 reads were compared using BLASTX with the default parameters from the KEGG database. A total of 18,410 reads with corresponding enzyme commission (EC) numbers were assigned to the metabolic pathways. Given that the sequences related to the metabolism of aromatic compounds were more abundant in the pygmy loris fecal metagenomes compared with other animals in terms of subsystem, we focused our attention on xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism.

A high number of sequences in the benzoate degradation pathway was observed, which is coherent with the fact that benzoate is a central intermediary compound in the anaerobic and aerobic metabolism of various aromatic compounds, such as toluence, xylene, fluorine, carbazole, and biphenyl [64]. The key enzymes involved in benzoate degradation via hydroxylation, such as catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (EC, and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (EC were identified in the pygmy loris fecal metagenomes (Figure 6a). The two usual methods of aerobic benzoate metabolism are dioxygenation to form catechol, utilized by some bacteria such as Pseudomonas putida and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus [65], and monooxygenation to form protocatechuate, mostly by Aspergillus niger [66]. Almost all the enzymes involved in the two methods of aerobic benzoate metabolism in the KEGG pathway (Figure 6a).

The main organisms, P. putida, A. calcoaceticus, and A. niger, involved in the course of metabolism were all represented in the pygmy loris fecal microbiome (Table S2 and S3). Figure 6 Reference pathway of benzoate degradation. Although several key enzymes such as benzoyl-CoA reductase (EC were missing in the method of anaerobic benzoate metabolism via CoA ligation, partial enzymes were identified (Figure 6b). This particular result may be due to the fact that the pathway of anaerobic benzoate metabolism in the pygmy loris was a little different. These results suggest that the fecal microbiota of the pygmy loris under study have a potential to degrade phenol and derivatives by the aerobic and anaerobic pathway.

Moreover, these pathways may interchange because of the cross-regulation between the anaerobic and aerobic pathways for the catabolism of aromatic compounds, which may reflect a biological strategy to increase cell fitness in organisms Brefeldin_A that survive in environments subject to changing oxygen concentrations [67]. Aromatic compounds comprise one-quarter of the Earth’s biomass and are the second most widely distributed class of organic compounds in nature, next to carbohydrates.

Most were non-White, less than 40 years old, and had been incarce

Most were non-White, less than 40 years old, and had been incarcerated less than 3 years. They inhibitor Ganetespib reported an average of 12.4 years of education. This may be attributed to Wisconsin’s strong promotion of High School Equivalence Degree programs for incarcerated individuals. Most were single and reported a mean of 2.2 children. Relatively low rates of substance use were reported in our sample postrelease. However, much of the relapse literature focuses on jail populations, where lengths of stay are significantly shorter and there is less treatment during incarceration compared with prison. Treatment was received by 43% of our participants during incarceration. Pelissier et al. (2001) found that differing levels of supervision, as well as whether a person completed substance use treatment during incarceration, significantly affected time to relapse on release.

In their study, 29% had evidence of substance use 6-months postrelease. On average, smoking was initiated at age 15, similar to that reported elsewhere (Voglewede & Noel, 2004) and participants had been smoking almost 15 years before the prison smoking ban. Most had attempted at lease one quit, and almost 80% reported wanting to quit or stay quit within the next 60 days after release. Almost 65% believed their health had improved since the smoking ban. The high level of reported nonsmoking in this study is especially significant considering the barriers to continued smoking abstinence postrelease. Participants reported an unstable financial and housing environment on reentry.

Most were unemployed, and more than 80% were either living in temporary housing or in someone else’s home or apartment. Most lived or worked with other smokers. More than 10% were either reincarcerated or spent at least 1 day in jail within the first month. Financial and emotional stressors (Petersilia, 2000), as well as a return to an environment where old smoking cues are once again encountered, have been shown to be strong predictors of late relapse in other populations (Cummings et al., 1985). In a recent study of relapse to smoking postrelease, Lincoln et al. (2009) found much lower rates of nonsmoking at 1 month (14%). However, Lincoln et al. studied chronically ill smokers with high rates of Hepatitis C who were released from jail, where average incarceration lasted 2 months.

Our study followed a general prison cohort where the average length of incarceration exceeded 2 years. These differences highlight the need for further study. In this study, smoking intent prerelease was a powerful predictor of postrelease smoking. In a study of smoking intent in a jail population, Voglewede and Noel Carfilzomib (2004) also found that future intent to smoke predicted current need to smoke. Depression did not predict smoking on release, consistent with findings that depression history predicted smoking 1 month but not 6 months postquit (Japuntich et al., 2007).

Studies have suggested an interactive relationship between argume

Studies have suggested an interactive relationship between argument strength and other message features (e.g., message sensation value; Kang, Cappella, & Fishbein, 2006) or audience nevertheless characteristics (e.g., risk of marijuana use; Kang, Cappella, & Fishbein, in press) on younger audiences�� evaluations of message effectiveness in discouraging drug use. In the present study, we crossed argument strength with smoking cues to evaluate the contingent effects of smoking cues on advertisement reactions depending on the advertisement argument strength. Cue-elicited smoking urge A smoking cue is defined here as a visual cue that presents at least one of the following: (a) smoking-related materials (i.e., cigarettes, ashtrays, matches, lighter, and the like), (b) holding and handling of a cigarette without smoking it, and (c) actual smoking of a cigarette.

These cues have been used in prior cue-reactivity studies and elicited smoking urges in adult smokers (e.g., Hutchison, Niaura, & Swift, 1999; Tiffany, Carter, & Singleton, 2000; Waters et al., 2004). Cue-reactivity studies often assess smoking urges using both psychophysiological and self-reported measures (Niaura et al., 1988). Both types of measures have been linked to relapse for at least some smokers (Rohsenow, Niaura, Childress, Abrams, & Monti, 1990; Shiffman, 1986). The present study assessed both psychophysiological responses (heart rate and skin conductance) and self-reported smoking urges. Whereas psychophysiological responses provide the biological roots of smoking urges, self-reported measures show that the smokers actually report experiencing smoking urges.

Based on previous evidence on cue-elicited smoking urges, we posed the first hypothesis: that smoking cues in the antismoking advertisements increase self-reported smoking urges. Antismoking advertisements seek to create more negative attitudes toward smoking and more favorable intentions toward quitting. The antismoking arguments of the advertisements might counteract the potential negative effects of smoking cues when they are present (i.e., eliciting smoking urge and subsequent smoking behavior). However, this assumption has not been tested explicitly. Persuasion studies generally Anacetrapib found stronger arguments to be more effective than weaker ones, at least for able and motivated audiences (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). In the context of antismoking advertisements, stronger antismoking arguments might suppress smoking urges in the presence of smoking cues more than weaker arguments do. However, smoking urges might be difficult to control in the face of smoking cues regardless of the strength of antismoking arguments.

After a minimum of 2 days following completion of these procedure

After a minimum of 2 days following completion of these procedures, all participants then participated in an abstinence incentive test during which abstinence from smoking was reinforced with money (see below for details). Procedures this Screening and Assessment Participants were recruited via flyers and advertisements and completed an initial telephone screen to determine interest and eligibility. Participants were then invited to complete an in-person screening session during which informed consent was obtained and further eligibility was determined. During the in-person screen, breath and urine samples were used to assess blood alcohol level and illicit drug use, respectively. CO was assessed with two breath samples: one upon arrival and the other after participants were allowed to smoke a cigarette.

In order to prevent exclusion of participants who may not have smoked recently prior to entering the laboratory, the minimum CO inclusion criterion was satisfied if either CO sample was greater than 8 ppm (All but four participants met criteria with the first breath sample). Participants then completed a battery of computer-administered questionnaires assessing demographic information, medical and psychiatric history, nicotine use history, and nicotine dependence. Following determination of eligibility, an assessment battery was administered, including additional measures of nicotine dependence, cigarette craving, and withdrawal. These scales have been thoroughly described elsewhere (FTND: Heatherton, Kozlowski, Frecker, & Fagerstr?m, 1991; NDSS: Shiffman, Waters, & Hickcox, 2004; WISDM: Piper et al.

, 2004; Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale [MNWS]: Hughes & Hatsukami, 1986). A four-item version of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU-4: Carter & Tiffany, 2001) was administered during assessment only for Study 1. Abstinence Incentive Test The abstinence incentive test involved a series of brief daily visits to the laboratory during which abstinence from smoking was biochemically verified and reinforced with money according to a descending payment schedule. All participants were instructed to initiate abstinence on the Sunday following completion of initial procedures. Participants then attended daily sessions lasting approximately 15 min each on Monday through Friday, plus an additional visit the following Monday. During each visit, participants reported the number of cigarettes smoked over the previous 24 hr (or 72 hr on the last day) and completed computerized questionnaires assessing craving (QSU-4) and withdrawal (MNWS). Anacetrapib Breath CO samples were obtained daily to verify abstinence status. Participants were considered abstinent if they reported not smoking and had a CO reading of <6 ppm or a 50% reduction from the previous sample.

We found no expression of CD4, CXCR4, or CCR5 on any of the cell

We found no expression of CD4, CXCR4, or CCR5 on any of the cell lines (Fig. (Fig.2A2A [data are from HepG2 cells only]). Expression of CD4, CXCR4, and CCR5 was clearly demonstrated in TZM-bl cells (Fig. (Fig.2A,2A, lower panels). To determine if these coreceptors mediated infection despite lack of detectable surface expression, we infected AD38 cells with either under NL4-3 or AD8 in the presence or absence of a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, or a CCR5 antagonist, maraviroc (Fig. (Fig.2B).2B). Following infection with NL4-3, infection was inhibited with AMD3100 but not maraviroc, demonstrating entry via CXCR4. Similarly, following infection with AD8, infection was inhibited with maraviroc but not AMD3100. These data demonstrate that HIV enters AD38 hepatic cell lines via CXCR4 or CCR5, despite the inability to detect surface expression of each coreceptor.

High-level HIV infection with VSV-NLNE-pseudotyped virus. We then wanted to determine what effects HIV replication within a hepatocyte would have on the HBV life cycle. In order to increase the level of HIV infection and to directly visualize HIV-infected hepatic cells, we infected hepatic cell lines with VSV-NLNE-pseudotyped virus. High-level infection was determined by measurement of HIV RT in addition to detection of EGFP by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy (peak = 51%) (Fig. (Fig.3A)3A) and was achieved at levels similar to that seen in the TZM-bl cell line (data not shown). EGFP expression in VSV-NLNE-infected AD38 cells also expressing HBcAg was demonstrated using fluorescence microscopy (Fig. (Fig.3B).3B).

Following infection of the AD38 cell line (n = 3) with VSV-NLNE, the peak RT level (mean �� standard error [SE]) was 6,366 �� 534 cpm (Fig. (Fig.3C).3C). Despite this high-level infection, cell proliferation determined using the MTS assay was similar to that in uninfected AD38 cells (Fig. (Fig.3D),3D), although we did not measure apoptosis specifically. In contrast, we observed toxicity in TZM-bl Batimastat cells at higher concentrations of VSV-NLNE (Fig. (Fig.3D).3D). Therefore, the use of VSV-NLNE allowed for high-level infection of HBV-expressing hepatic cell lines without significant cell death. This model was then used to evaluate any changes in the HBV life cycle following HIV coinfection. FIG. 3. Infection of hepatic cell lines with VSV-NLNE. (A and B) AD38 and TZM-bl cells were infected with VSV-NLNE, and infection was quantified by detection of EGFP using flow cytometry (A) or fluorescence microscopy (B). An AD38 cell is shown. Hoechst staining … Effect of high-level HIV infection on HBV expression.

Figure 3 Time course of rAAV2/8-HMBS-mediated hepatic HMB-synthas

Figure 3 Time course of rAAV2/8-HMBS-mediated hepatic HMB-synthase expression. AIP mice were sacrificed 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, and 36 weeks after vector administration and the hepatic HMB-synthase activities were determined. Results are shown as mean �� SD. Of … rAAV2/8-HMBS- and saline-treated different AIP mice were challenged with intraperitoneal injections of phenobarbital at 2, 10, 22, and 34 weeks after treatment to evaluate whether the expressed HMB-synthase enzyme prevented the biochemical induction of porphyrin precursors. Consistent with previous studies, urinary ALA and PBG increased markedly in the saline-treated AIP control mice, reaching levels of six- and tenfold greater, respectively, than the mean baseline values.

10,11 In contrast, phenobarbital induction in the rAAV2/8-HMBS-treated AIP mice did not increase their urinary ALA or PBG concentrations, which remained at levels similar to those in the wild-type mice (Figures 4a,b). This was consistent in all four experiments in which the mice were induced with phenobarbital. Figure 4 Urinary porphyrin precursor levels following phenobarbital injections. After collection of two baseline urine samples (days 1 and 2), increasing doses of phenobarbital (110, 120, 125, 130 mg/kg/day) were administered to wild-type (triangles) and … To investigate whether the AAV8-mediated HMB-synthase activity altered the response of hepatic ALAS1 expression to phenobarbital induction, relative ALAS1 transcript levels were determined at baseline and 9 hours after the fourth and final phenobarbital injection (130 mg/kg) at 34 weeks after rAAV2/8-HMBS treatment.

Real-time PCR analysis showed that baseline mean ALAS1 expression levels in the saline-treated AIP mice were approximately threefold higher than those of wild-type mice (relative ALAS1 transcript levels: 47.9 and 17.8, respectively), consistent with previous findings.10 Nine hours following the final phenobarbital injection, mean hepatic ALAS1 expression levels in the saline-treated AIP mice were markedly increased, whereas only slight increases were detected in the wild-type mice (230 versus 26.6, respectively). Not only did AAV8 treatment of the AIP mice normalize baseline hepatic ALAS1 levels (47.9 to 11.6), but it also decreased the phenobarbital-induced ALAS1 expression by approximately threefold (230 to 82.0). rAAV2/8-HMBS therapy improves neuromotor function of AIP mice Previously, it was shown that the AIP mice develop chronic progressive neuromotor impairment by 6 months of age.8 Therefore, the impact of rAAV2/8-HMBS treatment on motor coordination and balance skills was assessed by rotarod testing at 24 weeks Carfilzomib after vector administration, when the mice were 7 months of age.

SIRT7 interacts with RNA polymerase I histones to promote Pol I-m

SIRT7 interacts with RNA polymerase I histones to promote Pol I-mediated rRNA transcription in the nucleolus [12]. SIRT1 is the most studied sirtuin Ponatinib AP24534 family member, mainly due to its purported ability to promote longevity in yeast, worms, drosophila and mammals [13], [14], [15], [16]. However its ability to increase the life span of lower organisms has recently been called into question [17]. SIRT1 has also been suggested to have a critical role in tumorigenesis, however it is controversial whether SIRT1 is a tumor-suppressor or a tumor-promoter and in fact it is likely to be tumor-type specific [18]. SIRT1′s deacetylase activity plays an important function in normal and malignant cellular processes by targeting histones, which results in a tighter chromatin structure and transcriptional repression [19].

Importantly, SIRT1 also modulates the stability and/or activation potential of a broad range of transcription factors, such as p53 [20], [21], FOXO [22], Ku70 [23], NF-��B [24], E2F1 [25] and PPAR�� co-activator 1�� (PGC-1��) [26] and as recently described the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF), HIF-1 [27] and HIF-2 [28]. HIF transcription factors are the key mediators of oxygen homeostasis under hypoxic conditions and they play a vital role in embryonic development, physiological responses and in disease pathologies. HIF heterodimers are composed of an oxygen-sensitive ��-subunit and a constitutively expressed ��-subunit. HIF-1 and HIF-2 are the best-characterized isoforms and are mainly regulated by posttranslational modifications of their ��-subunit [29].

Specific prolyl hydroxylases (PHD), which depend on the substrates oxygen, Fe (II) and 2-oxoglutarate, target the ��-subunit under normoxic conditions [30]. Hydroxylation of two proline residues (HIF-1��: P402 and P564 and HIF-2��: P405 and P531) within the oxygen-dependent degradation domain serve as a recognition site for the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (pVHL), a ubiquitin E3 ligase, which leads to the proteosomal degradation of the ��-subunit [31], [32], [33]. In the absence of oxygen, PHDs are inactive and thereby HIF�� proteins are stabilized. Accumulated HIF�� protein translocates to the nucleus, forms a dimer with HIF�� and along with co-activators such as p300-CBP binds to hypoxia responsive elements (HRE) of target genes.

HIF-1 and HIF-2 share the same consensus sequence G/ACGTG in their target genes [34] and have several common gene targets such as erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) [35]. However, they also have unique transcriptional targets, HIF-1 is responsible GSK-3 for the regulation of many genes encoding enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, as well as the pro-apoptotic gene BCL2 adenovirus E1B-interacting protein 1 (BNIP3) and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) [36], [37].