Seedling roots also exhibit reduced PLETHORA (PLT), SCARECROW and

Seedling roots also exhibit reduced PLETHORA (PLT), SCARECROW and SHORTROOT gene expression, a loss

of stem cell activity, terminal differentiation of the root meristem and defective cell patterning. MDF expression is not defective in the bodenlos, pin1 or eir1/pin2 auxin mutants, and is not modulated by exogenous auxin. plt1 plt2 double mutants have unaffected levels of MDF RNA, indicating that MDF acts upstream of PIN and PLT gene expression. Differentiation of the shoot stem cell pool also occurs in mdf mutants, associated with a reduced WUSCHEL (WUS) expression domain and expanded CLAVATA3 (CLV3) domain. Overexpression of MDF leads to the activation of markers of embryonic identity and ectopic meristem activity in SRT2104 research buy vegetative tissues. These results demonstrate a requirement for the MDF-dependent PXD101 pathway in regulating PIN/PLT- and WUS/CLV-mediated meristem activity.”
“Older patients on dialysis have unique needs and characteristics and their outcomes vary from that of their younger counterparts. Comparatively fewer will start or be maintained on peritoneal dialysis (PD) compared to younger patients, despite

the fact that hemodialysis is often poorly tolerated. Barriers to PD for older patients include poor vision, frailty, cognitive dysfunction, accommodation issues, and a bias from renal teams that older patients cannot do PD. The development of assisted PD can overcome many of these barriers. The ability of older patients to use PD as their dialysis modality should not be determined by whether they live in an area where the nephrologist is a PD enthusiast. All patients should be given nonbiased information so they can choose the dialysis modality that gives them the best quality of life and suits their and their family’s lifestyle.”
“Radix Berberidis, Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Phellodendri are commonly used traditional Chinese medicines that contain protoberberine alkaloids, and they have been applied for more than 2,000 years by virtue of anti-infectious

effects. In the SBE-β-CD present study, we adopted modified broth microdilution method to investigate the antimicrobial activities of 5 protoberberine alkaloids (berberine, coptisine, palmatine, jatrorrhizin, epiberberine) on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Candida albicans. Meanwhile, we investigated the antimicrobial activities of the three herbal extracts, and it showed that protoberberine alkaloids had broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities, in which berberine showed the strongest activity. In addition, Rhizoma Coptidis showed the strongest antimicrobial activities among the three herbs, Radix Berberidis came next, Cortex Phellodendri the third.

Inventing new inorganic scintillating materials with high carrier

Inventing new inorganic scintillating materials with high carrier mobility can lead to a class of proportional inorganic scintillators. Results agree qualitatively with experimental results for the dependence of light yield on the incident energy. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3607247]“
“BACKGROUND: PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 order Chronic rejection (CR) is the main reason for the limited survival rates among lung transplant (LT) recipients. There remains no effective treatment for CR. The aim of this study was to identify

new molecular mechanisms involved in CR by using DNA microarray analysis.

METHODS: We performed 10 left LTs using the microsurgical cuff technique in inbred Sprague-Dawley rats. Lung isograft

samples were obtained 3 months after surgery. We analyzed histologic, apoptotic and gene expression changes by DNA microarray and quantitative PCR analysis.

RESULTS: Histologic analyses confirmed signs of CR in all lungs and positive labeling for apoptotic and anti-apoptotic markers. A total of 702 genes were regulated in the CR lungs: 317 genes were upregulated and 385 were downregulated. Significant changes for about 30 biologic processes, including regulation of the cytoskeleton, and 15 signaling pathways, such as adherens junctions, were observed. We found Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor significantly increased mRNA expression of the Cldn5, Epas1, Tgfb1, buy IPI-145 Vegf,

Selp1, Hsp27 and Igf1 genes.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first experimental study performed in an orthotopic model of LT using DNA microarray analysis. The individual genes, biologic process and pathways identified may represent novel targets that could be manipulated and contribute to the development of treatments capable of providing protection from CR. J Heart Lung Transplant 2012;31:213-21 (C) 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of morbidity in industrialized countries and morbidity/mortality in developing countries. In China, comprehensive studies of the etiology of CAP in children aged between 2 months and 14 years who are serious enough to require hospitalization are lacking. Previous studies have been limited in child age range, focused on fatal cases, and/or limited in etiologies sought. An understanding of the etiologies is needed for development of best prevention and management practices.

Objective: The aim of this study was to prospectively determine during a 12-month period the etiology of CAP in hospitalized children in a center in Northwest China.

Design/Methods: A prospective 12-month study (2004-2005) of CAP cases in children who were 2 months to 14 years of age admitted to the Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, China.

Fluorescence in situ hybridization performed on paraffin sections

Fluorescence in situ hybridization performed on paraffin sections confirmed that both T-lymphoblast and myeloblast populations were positive for the t(9;22) BCR/ABL1 AZD8186 research buy translocation. Subsequent flow cytometry analysis of the bone marrow showed expanded populations

of abnormal myeloblasts and T lymphoblasts diagnostic of blast phase CML. To the best of our knowledge, bilineal blast phase of CML with segregated extramedullary T lymphoblasts and myeloblasts has not been reported.”
“The present study focuses on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnO films prepared by the reaction of water and zinc. Temperature-dependent PL characteristics of the ZnO films have been investigated in the range from 15 to 260 K. The PL spectrum at 15 K is dominated by neutral donor-bound exciton ((DX)-X-0) emissions. The emission line at about 3.304 eV can be due to the transition of free

electrons to neutral acceptor states (eA(0)). It is suggested that the ultraviolet emission at room temperature can be attributed to the incorporation of eA(0) and free exciton (FX) transitions, rather than sole FX. According to the temperature behavior of green band, it is further confirmed that the green emission is mainly related to the singly ionized oxygen vacancies.”
“Methods: We analyzed echocardiographic and impedance data from heart failure patients implanted with a CRT-ICD capable of intrathoracic impedance measurement for fluid accumulation diagnosis, and LV pacing impedance recording for lead integrity monitoring.

Results: In 127 out of 170 patients that received de novo CRT implantation, the LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) decreased Selleck ALK inhibitor at 6-month follow-up (LVESV at 6 month-LVESV at baseline < 0: group A). For the remaining 43 patients (group B) the change was >= 0. Despite comparable values at baseline (P = 0.262), the impedances of groups A and B gradually diverged soon after the implant, resulting in significant difference between the two groups at the 6-month visit (P = 0.001). The changes in LV dimensions produced larger differences

between groups in the impedance measured between the Selleckchem BVD-523 LV and the RV leads (P < 0.001). The regression analysis demonstrated an inverse correlation between paired changes of volume and intrathoracic impedance. Higher correlation coefficient was obtained using the LV-to-RV measurement vector (r = -0.635, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The changes in ICD-measured impedance seem associated with the LV volume changes induced by CRT. Specifically, the LV-to-RV impedance estimations seem to better correlate with paired changes of ventricular volumes. (PACE 2010; 64-73).”
“Aorto-left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) is a rare congenital heart anomaly of unclear pathogenesis causing left ventricular volume overload. Most descriptions are from surgical corrections in the neonatal and infantile period, and little is known about ALVT in utero.

In contrast, our findings are the first to show free plasma VEGF

In contrast, our findings are the first to show free plasma VEGF in the umbilical circulation. We speculate that this free VEGF may promote angiogenesis in the foetus and placenta. Our data imply that sFlt-1 is not present in the cord blood, and that secretion by the syncytiotrophoblast is polarised to its apical surface. Further investigations are required

to test this hypothesis.”
“In some bariatric patients with predominantly intra-abdominal fat a shallow fat layer separates the gastric band access port from the JNK-IN-8 skin. We hypothesise that subfascial port placement in these patients reduces skin erosions and port infections and improves cosmesis as weight loss occurs.

This study aims to compare port complications, cosmetic outcome and ease of band adjustment with access ports in front of or behind the rectus muscle.

We retrospectively compared Akt inhibitor complications and cosmetic

outcomes of patients with subfascial ports to a control group matched for gender, BMI and age. Each subject completed a questionnaire utilising a 1 to 10 scale for nine parameters related to comfort and cosmesis and two parameters related to discomfort during adjustments.

Sixty-eight patients with subfascial ports were identified and the overall response rate was 84%. The groups were well matched for gender (m:f ratio 1.8:1 vs. 1.7:1, p = 1.000), age (51.0 vs. 49.6 years, p = 0.528) and BMI (39.8 vs. 40.3 kg/m(2), p = 0.585). There was no difference in port infection rates (0/68 vs. 1/68, p = 1.000) but the subfascial group had more hernias (3/68 vs. 0/68, p = 0.244). Subfascial patients experienced more pain during adjustments (score 4.3 vs. 2.6, p = 0.047) but a combined analysis of cosmesis showed a slight positive trend (1.58 vs. 1.76, p = 0.379).

Both port locations are well tolerated. Subfascial placement SBE-β-CD price is associated with more pain during adjustments but there is no difference in port infection or skin erosion rates.”
“Background: Earthquake exposure is associated with adverse consequences for cardiovascular disease. However, in the context of depressive symptoms,

the prognostic significance of heart failure (HF) related to earthquake-related loss has not been characterized before.

Hypothesis: To determine the prognostic impact of earthquake-related loss on event-free survival in patients with HF, with depression as a modifying factor.

Methods: Depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale in 404 HF patients who were followed up for 2 years after the earthquake to collect data on mortality and readmission. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare event-free survival between patients with and without earthquake-related loss. Cox proportional hazard regression modeling was used to examine the predicted outcomes for baseline variables.

There was no difference between the two groups in demographic and

There was no difference between the two groups in demographic and clinical data, with the exception of pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain both higher in AGT+ women. Also, all parameters referring to physical activity energy and diet (Kcal and diet components) were not statistically different between the two groups. After a multivariate analysis, only pre-pregnancy BMI (F-value 9.264,

p – 0.002) remained an independent predictor of 1-h plasma glucose.

Conclusions. Our study suggests that high pre-pregnancy BMI confers a substantially SNX-5422 chemical structure high risk of AGT, independently of lifestyle during pregnancy.”
“In 2009, nearly 66 million Americans (three in 10 U.S. households) reported at least one person providing unpaid care as a family caregiver. More adults with chronic conditions and disabilities are living at home than ever before, and family caregivers have an even higher level of responsibility. Caring for loved ones is associated with several benefits, including personal fulfillment. However, caregiving is also associated with physical, psychological, and financial burdens. Primary care physicians can

aid in the identification, support, and treatment of caregivers by offering caregiver assessments interviews directed at identifying high levels of burden as soon as caregivers are identified. Repeat assessments may be considered when there is a change in the status of caregiver or care recipient. Caregivers should be directed to appropriate resources for support, including national caregiving organizations, local area agencies find more on aging, Web sites, and respite care. Psychoeducational, skills-training, and therapeutic counseling interventions for caregivers of patients with chronic conditions such as dementia, cancer, stroke, and heart failure have shown small to moderate success in decreasing caregiver burden and increasing caregiver quality of life. Further research is needed to further identify strategies GW786034 to offset caregiver stress, depression, and poor health outcomes. Additional support and anticipatory guidance for the care recipient and caregiver are particularly

helpful during care transitions and at the care recipient’s end of life. (Am Fam Physician. 2011;83(11):1309-1317. Copyright (c) 2011 American Academy of Family Physicians.)”
“This study aimed to assess the secondary benefits and adverse effects of botulinum toxin A injections into the parotid and submandibular glands in children with developmental disability and to determine whether these effects are related to reduction in drooling. Twenty-six children were injected (14 boys and 12 girls; mean age, 11 years 3 months). The Drooling Impact Scale and a secondary effects questionnaire covering aspects of eating, speech, saliva management, and sleep, were administered to the main carer at specific times before and after injection. Group mean preinjection and post-injection item and domain scores were compared using paired t tests.

84 (95% CI 0 29, 2 41), second-look PCNL RR 1 18 (95% CI 0 49, 2

84 (95% CI 0.29, 2.41), second-look PCNL RR 1.18 (95% CI 0.49, 2.89)]. According to the study design, the subgroup analyses were performed; most results were consistent with the overall findings, except the one that evaluated the analgesic requirement in the CCT subgroup.

Conclusion: Total tubeless PCNL is a safe and effective procedure. It significantly reduced the hospital selleck inhibitor stay, analgesic requirement, and the time to return to normal activity without increasing complications. However, further randomized trials are needed to confirm these findings.”
“A 76-year-old man with a history of pontine,

cerebellar infaction suddenly became speechless during the procedure of percutaneous coronary intervention. On examination, he was unable to close his mouth voluntarily, but spontaneous closing was preserved when smiling. He had anarthria and hypophonia, although his comprehension was preserved. He also had a severe dysphagia. Radiological studies revealed an acute stroke in the left anterior operculum, indicating Foix-Chavany-Marie Syndrome (FCMS) caused by a unilateral opercular lesion. Pathophysiology

of the previous cases reported as unilateral FCMS remains controversial, but in our case, it could be delineated by the combination of the new lesion in the unilateral operculum and the old one in the contralateral pons. Since FCMS is not only related to biopercular lesions, we should consider thorough radiologic FRAX597 inhibitor examination to clarify its anatomic basis.”
“Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol in green tea (Camellia sinensis) and is known for its antioxidant effects. The objective of the present

study was to examine the effects of EGCG during in vitro fertilization (IVF) on the sperm quality and penetrability into oocytes. In the first experiment, the effects of concentration and incubation period of EGCG on the motility and penetrability of spermatozoa were examined. When frozenthawed spermatozoa were incubated in IVF medium supplemented with 0 (control), 1, 50 and 100 mu M EGCG for 1, 3 and 5 h, supplementation with 50 and 100 mu M EGCG improved motility of the spermatozoa (p < 0.05), but not viability, as compared with the control group. When frozenthawed spermatozoa selleckchem were co-incubated with in vitro-matured (IVM) oocytes in IVF medium supplemented with 50 and 100 mu M EGCG for 5 h, supplementation of EGCG had positive effects on sperm penetration rates. In the second experiment, the effects of supplementation of EGCG in IVF medium on penetrability of sperm from different boars and development of fertilized oocytes were evaluated. When frozenthawed spermatozoa from six boars were co-incubated with IVM oocytes in IVF medium supplemented with 50 mu M EGCG, the effect of EGCG on sperm penetration and development of oocytes after fertilization was found to vary with individual boar.

This is one of the first studies that assess the association of C

This is one of the first studies that assess the association of CRF and MF with HRQoL while controlling for BMI. CRF and MF are closely related to HRQoL,

in particular to physical well-being. Improving fitness could be a strategy of particular interest for improving the HRQoL of schoolchildren.”
“Hybrid nanocomposites of polypropylene/ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PP/UHMWPE, 70/30) with various amounts of carbon black (CB) and carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (c-MWNTs) were prepared by the solution mixing and melt blending techniques. The effects of the mixture of CB and c-MWNTs on the positive-temperature-coefficient (PTC) behavior and the negative-temperature-coefficient Fer-1 price (NTC) behavior, as well as the room temperature resistivity, were Studied. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the CB particles were aggregated at the interface, between PP and UHMWPE. This selective localization of the PCI-32765 cell line CB particles at the interface along with the formation of continuous conducting media leads to the formation of additional conducting networks, resulting in a percolation threshold at a low CB content. A

synergy effect of the hybrid conducting fillers of CB and c-MWNTs on the PTC behavior of the hybrid blends was also observed. The room temperature resistivity was reduced significantly by the incorporation of the c-MWNTs into the PP/UHMWPE/CB composite. The intensity and repeatability of the PTC effect in the nanocomposites were improved and the NTC effect weakened by incorporating a small amount (0.5 wt %) of c-MWNTs. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 116:116-124, 2010″
“Study Design. Surgeon survey.

Objective. To characterize the incidence of epidural hematoma in postoperative spinal patients; to assess the effect of chemical thromboprophylaxis on the risk of epidural hematoma.

Summary of Background Data. The precise indications

and/or timing of anticoagulation for thromboembolic Selleck S63845 prophylaxis following spinal surgery are not clear. Patients who endure periods of extended recumbency and limited mobility after major operative spinal interventions may be at increased risk of thromboembolic disease. Among other factors, spine surgeons must weigh the risk of a symptomatic postoperative epidural hematoma against the benefit of DVT/PE prevention when deciding to initiate chemoprophylaxis. However, the incidence of postoperative epidural hematoma is not well-known, leading to uncertainty regarding the real versus perceived risk of this complication.

Methods. The MEDLINE database was queried using the search terms epidural hematoma and spinal or spine surgery. Abstracts of all identified articles were reviewed.

OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence, incidence and risk factors fo

OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence, incidence and risk factors for CMH in

a young general population.

DESIGN: A cohort of Danish twins (aged 12-41 years) was prospectively examined using questionnaires in 1994 (n = 29 180) and in 2002 (n = 21 130). Prevalence and incidence of CMH were determined, and risk factors for the condition were assessed using logistic regression.

RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence of CMH was 8.6% in females and 6.9% in males in 1994, and the cumulative incidence among females and males was respectively 10.7% and 8.7% during the study period. Smoking and asthma were risk factors for CMH, with a dose-response effect of tobacco consumption, and smoking Neuronal Signaling inhibitor habits also predicting incidence of CMH.

CONCLUSION: Among the young, CMH is a condition

related to asthma and smoking, with a dose-response relationship with tobacco consumption and a relation between smoking habits and incidence. Female susceptibility to development of CMH was observed, as well as signs of greater susceptibility related to young age.”
“Aim: To analyze the influence of computed tomography (CT)-guided 3D conformal interstitial brachytherapy (3D-IBT) boost for better coverage of target volumes and study the diametric impact to organ at risk in patients with post-surgery recurrent and residual cervical cancer. Material and Methods: Fourteen consecutive patients with recurrent or residual cervical cancer who were treated with interstitial brachytherapy as a boost were included in the study. All patients received 50.4 Gy external radiation (EBRT) to whole pelvis with conformal technique to reduce the dose to bowel. The clinical target volume p38 MAPK inhibitor (CTV) and organs at risk were contoured on CT scan with gold seeds being a surrogate marker of initial tumor extent implanted before commencing treatment. The median dose of prescription

was 10.512 Gy in 3 fractions. Dose volume histogram was calculated to evaluate the dose that covers 100% and 90% of the target volume and dose to the bladder, Liproxstatin-1 rectum and bowel (2 mL, 1 mL volume). Results: The median follow-up was 12 months (range 618). The doses to CTV (D90, D100) ranged from 1141 to 2014 cGy, and 585 to 969 cGy, respectively. The mean cumulative 2-mL rectal, bladder and bowel doses were 66.70, 73.15 and 61.01 Gy, respectively. Rectal toxicity of grade 2 or more had a strong correlation with the dose delivered (Spearman’s correlation, 0.950). The local control rate at one year was 92% with failure seen in one patient only. Conclusion: Conformal EBRT supplemented with 3D-IBT seems to be a practical and appropriate approach to give the most optimal therapeutic benefit with the least side-effects in postoperative recurrent and residual cervical cancer patients.”
“BACKGROUND: Centres in Phases land III of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) programme used the method of consent (passive or active) required by local ethics committees.

“Background and Purpose: Biofilms on the surfaces of urina

“Background and Purpose: Biofilms on the surfaces of urinary catheters are among the pivotal factors for recurrent and persistent infections in urology. Many techniques have been investigated and applied for eradication of these biofilms-but with no full success. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sustained release medicated varnish, CYT387 molecular weight releasing chlorhexidine, on the formation of biofilm on the urinary catheter surface in an in-vitro model.

Materials and Methods: A batch model was used to test the antibacterial/antibiofilm effect of the sustained release varnish:

Catheter pieces coated with sustained release varnishes were placed in bacterial growth medium that

was infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa for 96 hours. Various concentrations of chlorhexidine impregnated in the varnish were tested. After the incubation TH-302 mouse period, the catheter pieces were assessed for biofilm formation by measuring the optical density, colony-forming units, and using confocal laser scanning microscopy, and electron scanning microscopy.

Results: Biofilm growth measurement (colony-forming units [CFU]) on the catheter surface coated with the various concentrations of chlorhexidine in sustained released varnish revealed a 94% reduction with 1% chlorhexidine (P < 0.0001) and 43% reduction with 0.1% chlorhexidine (P = 0.08) coated varnish in comparison with a positive control or the placebo varnish in preventing biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. These biologic assays were confirmed using confocal and electron microscopy.

Conclusions: Of the various tested concentrations of sustained release varnishes, the 1% chlorhexidine concentration has demonstrated the superior antibiofilm effect on urinary catheters with P.

aeruginosa. Although similar varnishes are used CP-868596 datasheet in dentistry, it needs extended research in animals before applying this technology in human trials.”
“Background: Some patients with progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPS) demonstrate a focal area of midbrain hypometabolism on FDG-PET scans which we call the ‘pimple sign’. We assessed its association with midbrain atrophy, its reliability and its ability to differentiate PSPS from corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and multiple system atrophy (MSA).

Methods: We identified 67 patients with PSPS, CBS or MSA who had volumetric MRI as well as FOG-PET imaging. Midbrain volume was measured and expressed as a percentage of total intracranial volume. Two independent, blinded specialists rated the ‘pimple sign’ on FDG-PET as ‘absent’, ‘possible’ or ‘definite’. Midbrain volumes were compared across these groups and reliability assessed with the kappa statistic. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using CBS and MSA patients as controls.

(C) RSNA, 2011″
“This observational microdialysis (MD) study

(C) RSNA, 2011″
“This observational microdialysis (MD) study of 33 subarachnoid hemorrhage patients explores brain interstitial levels of glutamine, glutamate, lactate and pyruvate, and their relationship to clinical status and clinical course at the neurointensive care unit.

The focus was on ischemic events, defined by clinical criteria or by radiology, and the significance of brain interstitial glutamine levels and lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio.

Eleven Torin 2 in vitro out of 12 periods with an ischemic MD pattern, defined as lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratios exceeding 40, were either related to delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND)

or CT-verified infarcts, confirming that L/P above 40 is a specific ischemic and pathological MD measure. Poor admittance WFNS grade (WFNS 4-5) patients had lower glutamine at the onset of monitoring than what good admittance WFNS grade (WFNS 1-3) patients had (P < 0.05). Interstitial glutamine increased over time in most patients. A “”glutamine surge”" was defined as a period where the interstitial glutamine concentration increased at least 150 mu M over 12 h. Fifteen patients had a DIND

and associated MD patterns RG-7388 purchase were glutamine surges (n = 12) and/or L/P > 40 (n = 6). Seven patients received vasospasm treatment; in five of these the only DIND-associated MD pattern was a glutamine surge. Seventy percent of the glutamine surges occurred during ongoing propofol sedation, and there was no association between extubations and glutamine surges. There was no difference in mean glutamine levels during the monitoring period between patients with favorable 6-month outcome and patients with poor 6-month outcome.

We suggest that an increasing interstitial glutamine trend is a dynamic sign of augmented astrocytic GSK923295 price metabolism with accelerated glutamate uptake and glutamine synthesis. This pattern

is presumably present in metabolically challenged, but yet not overt ischemic tissue.”
“Introduction: There are little data on cardiologists knowledge and application of current implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) guidelines, attitudes to risk, and how these may influence ICD prescription. Methods: A questionnaire survey was sent to UK cardiologists to test their knowledge and application of ICD guidelines and their estimate of the clinical benefits gained in different clinical scenarios. They were questioned on the minimum absolute risk reduction (ARR) required to justify an ICD implant and factors that influenced their decision making. Results: Sixty responses from 23 implanters and 37 nonimplanters were obtained. Eighty-three percent implanters and 43% nonimplanters were fully aware of UK ICD National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines. Only 7% responders had a screening program to identify primary prevention (PP) candidates. Although the mean estimate of ARR in PP scenarios was similar to trial data, the range of estimates was very wide.