Upgrading populations to the level species is usually done becaus

Upgrading populations to the level species is usually done because of absence of gene flow between lineages. But there is a limit to what can be subdivided: better gene sampling will not always reveal hidden species. In some, apparently over-classified groups the molecular Citarinostat clinical trial approach has even led to a decrease of the number of species. For example, Rhizopus microsporus was shown to be a single species with 9 proven synonyms, and in dermatophytes

several well-known clinical species appeared to be cultural variants of a single, prevalent taxon, Trichophyton rubrum. Understanding of sexual processes is needed for ultimate proof of conspecificity. Since fungal evolution is driven by interaction with its environment, ecology is a second essential parameter in taxonomy. Ecology also plays a role as a source of diversity at higher phylogenetic levels. In chaetothyrialean black yeasts closely related species may occupy very different habitats, while in most Capnodiales we witness gradational differences Fosbretabulin mw between environmental preferences of neighboring species. Black yeast-like fungi are unique in the fact that many species inhabit strange, extreme, poor, or toxic environments. Throughout history of mycology researchers have focused

primarily on accessible and easily culturable species, but now it’s time for the difficult fungi with odd behavior. Hostile environments like bare rock of the Antarctic or the Himalaya appear to be very rich in members of Capnodiales, many Staurosporine chemical structure of which are as yet undescribed. Inspired by classical studies on Antarctic rocks, Wolfgang Krumbein and co-workers sampled marble buildings of cultural heritage in Mediterranean Europe where numerous species and genera of obligatorily rock-dwelling fungi were uncovered. Other hostile environments are toxic mines, creosoted oak wood, ant nests, or low-nutrient environments. Not only the number of fungi present in these environments appears to be overwhelming, but it also makes us aware of large distortions in our phylogenetic

trees due to incomplete taxon sampling: with every new study supposedly ancestral species appear to be phylogenetically remote. An example is Phaeococcus nigricans which initially was thought to belong to a basal lineage of Chaetothyriales in the class Eurotiomycetes, but is now recognized as a member of Lichenostigmatales in the Arthoniomycetes. The present special issue of Fungal Diversity contains elements of all problems discussed above. The diversity of the current Exophiala jeanselmei clade is described by Zeng et al. Feng et al. provide an overview of Cyphellophora and relatives as one of the clades of Chaetothyriales which recently was upgraded to family level. Vicente et al. demonstrate the significance of dissecting morphological species into molecular siblings, suggesting that routes of infection of traumatic infections in humans may be more complicated than anticipated.

The diversity of blaZ gene as measured by the Simpson index of di

The diversity of blaZ gene as measured by the Simpson index of diversity (SID) was higher for the MRSA collection than for MSSA, although Selleck URMC-099 not statistically significant

due to the partial overlapping of the confidence intervals (SID = 79.18, 95%CI 69.6-88.8 vs SID = 76.09, 95%CI 61.3-90.9, respectively) – see Table 4. Overall, blaZ alleles were more variable in MSSA than in MRSA (14.7 and 11.4 SNP/allele, respectively). As illustrated by the allelic frequency distribution

per MRSA lineage (Figure 1) or the cluster tree of the thirteen blaZ alleles found in our collections (Figure 2), there is no clustering according to genetic lineages, as defined by MLST sequence type and SCCmec type, or MSSA/MRSA phenotype; i.e. the same allele could be detected in different genetic lineages or among MRSA and MSSA, and the same lineage could be characterized by several alleles. In addition, there was also no clear clustering of blaZ allotypes according to geographic origin or isolation date of the MRSA NSC 683864 isolates (see Table 1). Table 3 Characteristics of bla locus alleles Gene Allele No. Frequency SNPc) Amino acid substitutions     MRSA a) MSSA b)   Silent Conservative Missense Nonsense   1 0.43 0.21 0 0 0 0 0   2 0.02 0 1 0 0 1 1   3 0.07 0.04 9 4 2 2 0   4 0.04 0 9 4 2 3 0   5 0.06 0 7 2 2 3 0   6 0.11 0.46 13 8 2 3 0 blaZ 7 0.02 0 12 6 2 4 0   8 0.10 0.04 11 6 2 3 0   9 0.07 0.08 20 9 2 7 0   10 Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase 0.04 0.04 19 8 2 7 0   11 0.06 0.04 24 11 3 8 0   12 0 0.04 24 11 2 8 0   13 0 0.04 12 7 2 3 0   1 0.33 0.45 0 0 0 0 0   2 0.15 0.25 6 5 0 1 0   3 0.19 0.15 1 0 0 1 0   4 0.19 0.05

4 3 0 1 0 blaI 5 0.04 0 7 5 0 2 0   6 0.07 0 4 3 0 1 0   7 0.04 0 5 4 0 1 0   8 0 0.05 3 1 1 1 0   9 0 0.05 1 0 0 1 0   1 0.26 0.24 0 0 0 0 0   2 0.07 0 19 9 4 6 0   3 0.10 0 18 7 4 6 0   4 0.07 0.06 35 15 9 10 0   5 0.07 0.18 35 15 7 11 0   6 0.07 0.12 17 6 4 6 0 blaR1 7 0.07 0.06 24 10 7 7 0   8 0.03 0 33 12 6 12 0   9 0.16 0 31 11 6 11 0   10 0.13 0.24 32 12 6 11 0   11 0 0.06 20 9 5 7 0   12 0 0.06 34 16 6 10 0 a) The total number of MRSA strains whose blaZ, blaI and blaR1 genes were analyzed is 54, 27 and 31, respectively.

In order to easily locate the excitation area for pumping each in

In order to easily locate the excitation area for pumping each individual ZnO microcavity, a 200-mesh transmission electron microscopy grid was fixed on the sample. To measure the photoluminescence, a micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) system was used to analyze the optical properties of the individual ZnO microcavities under the excitation of a 325-nm HeCd laser or a 266-nm Nd: YAG pulsed laser. The sample was placed on a sample holder that was mounted on a three-axis translational stage. A camera was used

to distinguish the signals emitted from individual ZnO microcavities. All of the optical measurements were performed at room temperature. Results and discussion Figure 1 shows the typical XRD patterns of the products synthesized in HDAC inhibitor the first and second steps. For the products that were obtained before the oxidation process, all of the peaks were identified as Zn with a hexagonal structure (JCPDS No. 87-0713); no obvious diffraction peaks of ZnO were identified Selleckchem C188-9 because there was no diffraction pattern attributed to the impurities. After the oxidation process, almost all of the

diffraction peaks could be readily indexed as the hexagonal wurtzite ZnO phase (JCPDS No. 36-1451), except for the Zn peak at 43.36°. These results indicated that the Zn crystals were oxidized. The Zn could have originated from the inner core of the first products, where the Zn had yet to be transformed fully into the ZnO structures. Figure 1 XRD patterns of the Zn microcrystal (bottom branch) and the annealed sample (upper branch). The circles denote peaks corresponding to Zn and the squares to ZnO. Figure 2a shows a representative SEM image of the morphology

of the product fabricated during the first step. The figure shows hexagonal Zn/ZnO microcrystals with six-faceted side walls. The diameter and height of the Zn/ZnO microcrystals were 4.5 and 1.5 μm, respectively. A low-magnification SEM image of a large area (not shown) showed that these microcrystals had diameters that ranged from 3 to 16 μm. After the oxidation process in step 2, urchin-like ZnO microstructures with multilayer sheets and multiple nanowires were observed, as shown in Figure 2b. Figure 2c shows an enlarged image of the typical nanowire with a tapered structure. The diameters Urocanase and lengths of the tapered nanowires had ranges of 70 to 300 nm and 0.5 to 10 μm, respectively. Figure 2 SEM images of individual ZnO microcrystal, magnification image of tapered nanowire, and the oxidation process. SEM images of an individual ZnO microcrystal (a) before and (b) after oxidation at 500°C. (c) The magnification image of the tapered nanowire. (d) Illustration images of the metallic Zn transformed into ZnO microcavity during the oxidation process. The growth mechanism of these urchin-like structures was proposed to be self-catalyzed growth resulting from the oxidation of metallic Zn. Figure 2d shows the proposed mechanism by which these urchin-like ZnO microstructures were formed.

5 mg, glucose −200 mg] and iron (FeCl3) was supplemented as indic

5 mg, glucose −200 mg] and iron (FeCl3) was supplemented as indicated. The divalent metal ion containing salt, CoSO4 was used as the iron antagonizing molecule at a concentration of 500 μM. Biofilm growth on microtiter plates K. pneumoniae biofilms were grown in 96-well microtiter plate according to method described by Bedi et al. [20]. Briefly, 100 μl of minimal M9 medium and 100 μl of bacterial culture (OD600 = 0.3) equivalent to 108 CFU/ml of K. pneumoniae ARRY-438162 were added

to the wells of microtiter plate and incubated at 37°C overnight. In each test, control wells containing sterile minimal media were included that acted as plate sterility control. After every 24 h, planktonic bacteria were removed and a set of two wells (corresponding to each day) were washed thoroughly

3 times with 0.85% NaCl. Adherent biofilms were scraped from 2 wells, suspended in 0.85% NaCl and vortexed for 3 min using Remi Cyclomixer learn more (Remi Instruments & Appliances Ltd, Bombay, India). Microbial load of biofilm was enumerated by viable cell counting. In rest of the wells, spent medium was replaced with fresh sterile M9 media and plate was reincubated at 37°C overnight. This procedure was repeated until 7th day of experiment. Biofilm growth in iron supplemented minimal media Different wells of 96-well microtiter plate were inoculated with 100 μl of K. pneumoniae culture (OD600 = 0.3) equivalent to a bacterial cell density of 108 CFU/ml and 100 μl of M9 media supplemented with different concentrations of FeCl3 (0, 10 μM, 100 μM, 1000 μM). After overnight incubation at 37°C contents of all wells were removed and from two set of wells containing 0/10 μM/100 μM/1000 μM FeCl3 supplemented minimal media unadhered bacteria were washed off, biofilms were scraped Celecoxib from 8 wells, cells were enumerated by plating on nutrient agar plates. In rest of the wells, spent medium was replaced

with fresh sterile M9 media and plate was reincubated at 37°C overnight. This procedure was repeated until 7th day of experiment. Biofilm growth in iron supplemented minimal media with cobalt addition To determine the efficacy of Cobalt sulphate (CoSO4) in inhibiting the biofilm growth, 100 μl of K. pneumoniae was inoculated in different wells of microtiter plate containing 100 μl of minimal media supplemented with 10 μM FeCl3 or 500 μM of Cobalt sulphate (CoSO4) alone or in combination. After overnight incubation at 37°C contents of all wells were removed and from two set of control wells and wells with 10 μM FeCl3/500 μM CoSO4/both, supplemented minimal media (8 samples) unadhered bacteria were removed and viable counts were determined.

Most of the studies are retrospective and the patient selection i

Most of the studies are retrospective and the patient selection is determined by the survivors arriving at the hospital and ignorance of the mortuary data. Topal et al. report a mortality rate of 15% in 61 penetrating cardiac cases with predominantly stab wounds but state that “patients pronounced dead on arrival were not assessed in this study” [33]. The only known prospective study ACP-196 order reports another reality with a mortality rate of 97% when multichamber penetrating injury is present [2]. Also Molina et al. reports high mortality (67%) in a cohort with mainly stab wounds throughout the last decennium [4]. Our patient maintained suboptimal circulation

for approximately two hours before undergoing surgery. The time span taken into consideration,

selleckchem our patient was extremely lucky as the outcome is usually poor when the time from trauma to surgery increases [5, 6]. An Israeli study of 14 patients reports 100% survival (9 SW, 2 GSW, 1 shrapnel injury and 1 multi trauma) with the mean time from injury to surgery of 37 min [7]. In addition to fast admission to surgery, this outstanding result may also be due to the fact that all patients had single chamber injuries and no coronary artery injury. According to Burack et al., patients with penetrating mediastinal trauma triage themselves between operative intervention or evaluation and observation as they present either stable or unstable on admission. In this retrospective study the authors present 207 patients of which 72 were unstable [10]. Of these 15% had cardiac injury with 18% survival when explored in the ED. The survival rate was 71% when patients with penetrating cardiac injury reached the operating room. All patients having

cardiac injury in this study were unstable (authors criteria: traumatic cardiac arrest or near arrest and an emergency department thoracotomy (EDT); cardiac tamponade; ATLS grad III shock despite fluid resuscitation; chest tube output >1500 ml at insertion; chest tube Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase output >500 ml in the initial hour; massive hemothorax after chest tube input). The study does not report the use of CPB. In our patient, there was a large stab wound of the left ventricle running parallel to the diagonal artery as well as a stab wound in the left atrium. Regarding the location of penetrating cardiac injury, the right ventricle is the most common due to its ventral anatomical position, followed by the left ventricle, right atrium and left atrium [2, 3, 11]. The patients with a single right ventricle injury are mostly salvagable whereas those with multichamber injuries have a very high mortality [2, 4, 21]. The concomitant injury of the lung in our patient is not a rarity [3]. Our patient did not suffer from cardiac tamponade as there was a large opening to the left pleural cavity through the wound in the pericardium. This probably saved his life, although profound hypovolemia can conceal signs of cardiac tamponade leading to delayed diagnosis [36].

5 ± 3 5 2 0 ± 0 9 6 9 ± 1 4 KDP150 (ΔfimA) 52 5 ± 3 5* 1 7 ± 0 7*

5 ± 3.5 2.0 ± 0.9 6.9 ± 1.4 KDP150 (ΔfimA) 52.5 ± 3.5* 1.7 ± 0.7* 23.7 ± 5.6** MPG67 (Δmfa1) 35.8 ± 3.6** 2.7 ± 1.6** 20.9 ± 4.4** MPG4167 (ΔfimAΔmfa1) 32.3 ± 3.8** 3.0 ± 1.6** 20.5 ± 4.3** KDP129 (Δkgp) 39.8 ± 3.2 2.2 ± 1.2 19.6 ± 5.4** KDP133 (ΔrgpAΔrgpB) 41.0 ± P005091 nmr 5.7 2.2 ± 1.0 45.9 ± 4.5** KDP136 (ΔrgpAΔrgpBΔkgp) 43.0 ± 1.4 2.1 ± 0.8 22.2 ± 2.4** a)Number of peaks was evaluated in an area sized 90 (x axis) × 2 (y axis) μm. The mean ± SE of 10 areas was shown. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 in comparison with the

wild type using a Scheffe test. Figure 3 Homotypic biofilm formation by P. gingivalis wild-type strain and mutants in dTSB. P. gingivalis strains were stained with CFSE (green) and incubated in dTSB for 24 hours. After washing, the biofilms that developed on the coverglasses were observed with a CLSM equipped with a 40× objective. Optical sections were obtained along the z axis at 0.7-μm intervals, and images of the x-y and x-z planes were reconstructed with imaging software, as described in the text. Upper panels indicate z stacks of the x-y sections. Lower panels

show x-z sections. The experiment was repeated independently three times with each strain in triplicate. Representative images are shown. Quantitative analysis of biofilms in dTSB In the early maturation phase, the biovolumes of the biofilms were significantly increased CAL-101 cost in all of tested mutants as compared to the wild type (Figure 4). Deletion of long fimbriae resulted in the opposite tendency from the initial attachment phase, suggesting that this molecule has distinct roles under the different

phases. Figure 4 Quantification of homotypic biofilms formed by P. gingivalis wild-type strain and mutants in dTSB. Biofilms were formed as described in the legend to Figure 3, and 10 fields per a sample were randomly recorded and quantified, similar to the method described in the legend to Figure 2. Statistical analysis was performed with a Scheffe test. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 L-NAME HCl in comparison to the wild-type strain. Exopolysaccharide production under proliferation conditions As extracellular polysaccharide is important for the development of biofilm communities, we examined the influences of fimbriae and gingipains on the accumulation of exopolysaccharide in P. gingivalis biofilms. To visualize and quantify exopolysaccharide accumulation in biofilms under the proliferation condition, 4′,6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-labeled P. gingivalis cells and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled exopolysaccharide were examined by confocal microscopy with digitally reconstructed image analysis.

It was concluded that bacterial concentrations and species in the

It was concluded that bacterial concentrations and species in the colon were not reliably predictive

of the bacterial concentrations or species in the rumen [24]. The rumen contained an average of 1.66 × 1012 copies of 16S rRNA/g (± 7.27 × 1011 SEM). This is comparable to other ruminants: 5.17 × 1011 cells/g (± 3.49 × 1011) for Norwegian reindeer [25], 1.86 × 1011 cells/g (± 9.68 × 1010) and 5.38 x 1011 cells/g (± 2.62 x 1011) for Svalbard reindeer [26] in April and October, respectively, and 1.60 × 1011 cells/g (± 1.35 x 1011) for Canadian dairy cattle [27]. The dominant phylum in the moose rumen was Firmicutes with 192 OTUs, followed by Proteobacteria with 142 OTUs and PND-1186 supplier Bacteroidetes with 66 OTUs. Firmicutes is often the dominant phylum in gut microbiomes,

and many of those found in the moose were of the class Clostridia, containing sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which can be pathogenic, endospore forming, and found in soil. Sundset et al. [28] reported that PKC inhibitor in rumen samples taken from reindeer in Svalbard, the bacteria cultivated were mainly from the class Clostridia. It was noted that Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, and R. flavefaciens were not found in the rumen of the reindeer [28], although this may simply be a bias of the cultivation approach. Fibrobacter and Ruminococcus are both cellulolytic and have previously been found in the rumen of reindeer [25, 29]. However, in the present study, F. succinogenes and R. albus were not found, despite both species being present on the chip with multiple strains. Ruminococcus flavefaciens was detected in several samples, but only a few of its 11 probes matched, making the result insignificant. Ruminococcus obeum was detected in the present study. In a recent paper studying rumen bacteria in dairy cattle,

Firmicutes was the dominant phylum in four cattle rumen samples when using full length 16S rRNA clone libraries, but was only dominant in three samples with Proteobacteria being dominant in one sample when using partial 16S rRNA clone libraries or environmental gene tags [30]. Gamma- and alpha-Proteobacteria have been medroxyprogesterone shown to be type I and type II methanotrophs, respectively, meaning they utilize methane as their source of carbon. In the present study, the species Enterobacter cloacae, of the class gamma-Proteobacteria, was found in the moose, and in a non-lactating Holstein cow based on PCR of the 16S rRNA gene to target methanotrophs [31]. In a comparison between the moose rumen data and a study using the PhyloChip and samples from the crop of the wild folivorous bird, the hoatzin [21], similarities arise. Godoy-Vitorino et al. [17] showed that bacteria from the crop of the hoatzin clustered into distinct groups by age: chicks (n = 3), juveniles (n = 3) and adults (n = 3).

Later, in 1968 he was

Later, in 1968 he was buy Adriamycin awarded the Doctor of Science at the University of Newcastle in recognition of his exceptional contributions of published work in his field. The author of over

230 publications, including several books, David was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1976. In 1991, he received a Humboldt Research Prize, and in 2004, he received the inaugural Communications Award from the International Society of Photosynthesis Research (ISPR). For his accomplishments and a list of some of the publications, which illustrate his outstanding contributions to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in photosynthesis see: http://​en.​wikipedia.​org/​wiki/​David_​Alan_​Walker; and online information in Orr and Govindjee (2010, pp. 188, 189, 197, 198), and at http://​www.​hansatech-instruments.​com/​david_​walker.​htm. See Fig. 1 for two photographs

of David Walker taken at two different times. Fig. 1 Two photographs of David Walker taken at different times For a colorful, informative and detailed description of David’s career, including how he came to study plant biology and chloroplast function, see his memoir, “Tell me where all past years are” (Walker 1997, see also Walker 2003a). Besides his many contributions to our understanding of the photosynthetic process, David spent equal time over many years in technical developments. These include methods for the isolation of intact, fully functional chloroplasts, and oxygen electrode systems for studying Selonsertib ic50 photosynthesis, which were combined with chlorophyll fluorescence analysis to simultaneously measure O2 evolution and photochemistry, and the fate of energy absorbed by Photosystem II. As a science writer, David was Erastin supplier unique; he was both eloquent and literate. According to David, “By the time that I was four, long before infants’

school, my mother (Dorothy) and my ‘mad’ aunt had taught me to read, thereby giving me the finest gift that any child could receive. I learned to read fast and to read widely.” (Walker 1997). David’s’ ongoing goal in life was to make science accessible to, and appreciated by, the general public. His approach incorporated science, history, art, poetry, humor, nature and the environment. In addition, he agonized over science and politics, which was captured in his writing. Along with his outstanding style of writing, he also incorporated illustrations by his son Richard, making the science very accessible to the public. In August, 2004, David received “The Communications Award” from the International Society of Photosynthesis Research for his outstanding efforts to communicate photosynthesis to the general public. This was in recognition of contributions beyond his more than 200 publications in science journals. David said he appreciated the encouragement engendered by this award, his colleagues in research and friends, and that he was pleased to be a part of the international community.

Figure 1 AFM images of ZnO seed layers They are prepared by (a)

Figure 1 AFM images of ZnO seed layers. They are prepared by (a) RF magnetron sputtering (40 nm in thickness) and (b) dip coating. Figure 2a,b,c shows the SEM images of ZnO nanostructures grown on bare Si substrate, on the Si substrate coated with seed layer deposited by RF magnetron sputtering (40 nm in thickness), and on the Si substrate coated with seed layer deposited by dip coating method, respectively,

at 0.05 M, at 95°C for 5 h. As can be seen, there are ZnO nanostructures grown on all of the three substrates. Among them, there are randomly oriented ZnO nanoflowers at low density on the bare Si substrate, as shown in Figure 2a. Without the seed layer, the nucleation density is remarkably lower than that grown with seeds because nucleation of ZnO eFT-508 nmr A-769662 price nanostructures on seeds has a lower free energy barrier of activation than on the bare Si substrate [9]. In contrast, Figure 2b,c presents that ZnO nanorods grown on the Si substrate coated with the seed layer deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and dip coating are c-axis-oriented at high density, indicating

that the seed layer plays an essential role in promoting nucleation and guiding oriented growth. Especially, the nanorods grown on the RF-sputtered seed layer is perfectly aligned normal to the substrate with uniform height,

which is due to the low roughness and even distribution of the RF-sputtered selleck screening library seed layer, while the broad size distribution and large surface roughness of the dip-coated seed layer lead to poor orientation and surface roughness of the ZnO nanorods as shown in Figure 2c, which will be further confirmed by the following XRD measurement. Figure 2 SEM images of ZnO nanostructures. They are grown on (a) bare Si substrate, the Si substrate coated with the seed layer deposited by (b) RF magnetron sputtering (40 nm in thickness) and (c) dip coating, at 0.05 M, at 95°C for 5 h (insets are corresponding cross-sectional images). The crystal structure on the ZnO nanostructures grown on bare Si substrate (sample 1), RF-sputtered seed layer (sample 2), and dip-coated seed layer (sample 3) was studied using XRD measurements in a θ-2θ configuration, as shown in Figure 3. Except for the peaks caused by the Si substrate and the non-monochromaticity of the X-ray source, the XRD patterns of the three samples share two peaks at 34.44° and 72.56°, corresponding to ZnO (002) and (004), respectively. The absence of any other peaks from the XRD pattern of sample 2 within the experimental resolution indicates the high c-axis orientation of ZnO nanostructures grown on RF-sputtered seed layer.

PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they

PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions NCS, LMW and NYF designed the experiments. NCS and LMW carried out most of experiments and drafted the manuscript. CJM and MJM carried out the immunoassays. buy Blebbistatin LJ and FXM participated in statistical analysis

and interpretation of data. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Introduction Worldwide, breast cancer comprises 10.4% of cancer incidence among women, making it the second most common type of non-skin cancer (after lung cancer) and the fifth most common cause of cancer death [1]. In the last two decades, the incidence and mortality of breast cancer have climbed sharply in China, thus attracting increased attention

of researchers [2]. Historically, beast cancer emerges by a multistep process which can be broadly equated to transformation of normal cells via the steps of hyperplasia, premalignant lesions and in situ carcinoma, invasive carcinoma which supported by evidences from clinical, pathological, and genetic studies [3–5]. It is a heterogeneous disease that encompasses a wide range of pathological entities and clinical behaviors, thus ABT888 posing great challenges in understanding the precise molecular mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis [3]. Recent studies show that about 8% to 9% of women with benign lesions will be subsequently

developed into invasive breast cancer [6, 7]. It is quite unclear how invasive breast cancer develops through these ductal hyperplasias, SDHB which include usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH) and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) [8]. The importance of some molecular markers in breast cancer has been of considerable interest during recent years, not only as prognostic markers, but also as predictors of response to therapy. p53 is the primary arbiter of the mammalian cells’ response to stress. In its normal form, p53 can be involved in the induction of apoptosis and thus has a regulatory function over the cell cycle. In its mutant form, p53 inhibits apoptosis, loses control on cell cycle progression and thus helps tumor formation [9]. Nuclear p53 accumulation which associates with p53 mutation is one of the most common events during breast carcinogenesis [10–12]. Epidemiological and experimental evidences implicated oestrogens in the aetiology of breast cancer [13–17]. The biological actions of estrogens are mediated by binding to one of two specific estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα or ERβ, which belong to a family of ligand-regulated transcription factors [18]. ERα has been widely accepted as a prognostic marker and a predictor for endocrine therapy response of breast cancer [19, 20]. In general, ERα-negative breast cancers are more aggressive and unresponsive to antiestrogens [21].