6 mm; standard deviation <= 0 3 mm) Mean stereotactic referen

6 mm; standard deviation <= 0.3 mm). Mean stereotactic reference deviations between phantoms and patients correlated well (T1: R = 0.79; T2: R = 0.84). Statistical process control analysis on phantom QA data demonstrated the stability of our SRS imaging protocols, where the geometric accuracy of the 3 T SRS imaging protocol is operating within Elafibranor in vitro the appropriate tolerance. Our data provide evidence supporting the spatial validity of 3 T MRI for targeting SRS under imaging conditions investigated. We have developed

a systematic approach to achieve confidence on the geometric integrity of a given imaging system/technique for clinical integration in SRS application.”
“Throughout their evolutionary history, insects have formed multiple relationships with bacteria. Although many of these bacteria are pathogenic, with deleterious

effects on the fitness of infected insects, there are also numerous examples of symbiotic bacteria that are harmless or even beneficial to their insect host. Symbiotic bacteria that form obligate or facultative associations with insects and that are located intracellularly in the host insect are known as endosymbionts. Endosymbiosis can be a strong driving force for evolution when the acquisition and maintenance of a microorganism by the insect host results in the formation of novel structures or changes in physiology and metabolism. The complex evolutionary dynamics of vertically transmitted symbiotic bacteria have led to distinctive symbiont Rigosertib clinical trial genome characteristics LXH254 chemical structure that have profound effects on the phenotype of the host insect. Symbiotic bacteria are key players in insect-plant interactions influencing many aspects of insect ecology and playing a key role in shaping the diversification of many insect groups. In this review, we discuss the role of endosymbionts in manipulating insect herbivore trophic interactions focussing on their impact on plant utilisation patterns and parasitoid

“During evolution, plants have become associated with guilds of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which raises the possibility that individual PGPR populations may have developed mechanisms to cointeract with one another on plant roots. We hypothesize that this has resulted in signaling phenomena between different types of PGPR colonizing the same roots. Here, the objective was to determine whether the Pseudomonas secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) can act as a signal on Azospirillum PGPR and enhance the phytostimulation effects of the latter. On roots, the DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 strain but not its phl-negative mutant enhanced the phytostimulatory effect of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245-Rif on wheat. Accordingly, DAPG enhanced Sp245-Rif traits involved in root colonization (cell motility, biofilm formation, and poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate production) and phytostimulation (auxin production).

This carboxy terminus transactivation domain was found to prefere

This carboxy terminus transactivation domain was found to preferentially regulate genes involved in cell cycle progression. Moreover,

its activity is regulated throughout the cell cycle and modified by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation at serine ACY-1215 chemical structure residue 388. Our results suggest that this novel post-translational modification within the p73 carboxy terminus transactivation domain is involved in the context-specific guidance of p73 toward the selective induction of cell cycle arrest.”
“Objective. To investigate whether the health and functioning of the Baby Boom generation are better or worse than those of previous cohorts in middle age.\n\nMethods. Trend analysis of vital statistics and self-reports from the National Health Interview Survey for the 40-59 population. Specific outcomes (years of data): mortality (1982-2004); poor or fair health (1982-2006); nine conditions (1997-2006); physical functional limitations (1997-2006); and needing help with personal care, routine needs, or either (1997-2006).\n\nResults. In 2005, the mortality rate of 59-year-olds, the leading edge of the Baby Boom, was 31% lower than that of 59-year-olds in 1982 (8.3 vs. 12.1 per 1,000). There was a similar proportional check details decline in

poor/fair health, but the decline reversed in the last decade. From 1997 to 2006, the prevalence of reports of four conditions increased significantly, but this trend may reflect improvements in diagnosis and treatment. Functional limitations and need for help with routine needs were stable, but the need for help with personal care, while quite low, increased.\n\nDiscussion. Trends varied by indicator, period, and age. selleck compound It is surprising that, given the socioeconomic, medical, and public health advantages of Baby Boomers throughout their lives, they are not doing considerably better on all counts.”
“Background: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial

alternative oxidase (AOX) in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance.\n\nResults: The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were cloned and introduced into tomato ‘Healani’ and petunia ‘Sheer Madness’ using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Highly expressed AOX transgenic tomato and petunia plants were selfed and transgenic R1 seedlings from 10 tomato lines and 12 petunia lines were used for bioassay. For each assayed line, 22 to 32 tomato R1 progeny in three replications and 39 to 128 petunia progeny in 13 replications were challenged with TSWV. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays showed that the TSWV levels in transgenic tomato line FKT4-1 was significantly lower than that of wild-type controls after challenge with TSWV.

“In a recent landmark trial of bacteremia caused by methic

“In a recent landmark trial of bacteremia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, vancomycin MICs were >= 1 mu g/ml for only 16% of the isolates, and accessory gene regulator (agr) function as measured by delta-hemolysin activity was absent or reduced in only 28.1% of the isolates. R406 inhibitor This clinical

study did not capture a population of MRSA isolates predictive of vancomycin treatment failure.”
“Background and Objectives: Factors predicting outcome after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in large pediatric cohorts are not well defined. We hypothesized that definable preoperative clinical factors predict the need for further intervention to provide enteral access after PEG. Our aim was to identify factors associated Selleckchem THZ1 with PEG outcome.\n\nMaterials and Methods: A retrospective review of 760 (407 boys and 353 girls)

patients was performed after PEG at the Johns Hopkins Children’s Center from 1994 to 2005. Logistic or multiple linear regression was used to analyze indication; diagnosis; age; prematurity; neurological impairment; weight-for-age z scores; modified barium swallow; postoperative complications; need for fundoplication (FP), gastrojejunal tube, or jejunostomy; and length of hospital stay.\n\nResults: The median age was 1 year (range 0-26 years). The most common indications given for PEG were failure to thrive (n = 373) and dysphagia (n = 27). Postoperative FP, gastrojejunal tube, or jejunostomy were performed in 66 (10%), 24 (4%), and 9 (1%) patients, respectively. Preoperative report indicated that dysphagia and direct aspiration on modified barium swallow was strongly associated with patients undergoing FP after PEG, 10.6% of patients (P = 0.008, odds ratio 2.4) and 11.2% of patients (P = 0.013, Navitoclax manufacturer odds ratio 2.8), respectively. Younger preoperative age was also associated with the need for FP (P = 0.0006; median age of 5.8 vs 14 months). Patients with preoperative dysphagia had a longer median length of hospital

stay: 8 versus 3 days (P < 0.00001). Patients with neurological impairment demonstrated greater weight gain than neurologically normal patients after PEG (P = 0.04). Minor postoperative complications (most commonly wound infection) were observed in 4% (27/747) of children before hospital discharge from PEG and in 20% of children (138/682) after discharge. There were only 2 major complications (gastric separation and gastrocolonic fistula.). There were no fatalities.\n\nConclusions: Preoperative diagnosis, indication, prematurity, and neurological impairment did not influence postoperative complications.”
“Aim: The aim of this study was to understand the general public’s and healthcare professionals’ views on nutrigenomics. Patients & methods: We designed a cross-sectional survey of healthcare professionals (n = 87) and the general public (n = 1504) in the three largest cities in Greece (Athens, Thessaloniki and Patras).

There was no difference in expansions/contractions between CD4+CD

There was no difference in expansions/contractions between CD4+CD25Bright and CD4+ T lymphocyte repertoires (P = 0.575) for individual patients but significant differences in expansions/contractions between CD4+CD25Bright and CD8+ T lymphocytes repertoires JQ1 datasheet (P = 0.011). There was bias in V beta usage between CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD4- T lymphocyte subsets. A total of 67% patients had TCR V beta repertoire abnormalities, with a trend towards increased repertoire abnormalities with fewer RTEs, suggesting thymic output plays an important role in TCR repertoire diversity. There was no correlation between skewed repertoire and symptoms of infection or autoimmunity.”

association between celiac disease (CD) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) has been reported in literature. Recent epidemiological studies showed an increased prevalence of CD in patients with PBC and vice versa. The cause of PBC is unknown. However, considerable evidence points to an autoimmune basis. The role of infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori), has been proposed to stimulate antibody cross-reaction with mitochondria of the bile duct cells. We report a case of a 36-year-old woman with diagnosis of CD, PBC and H. pylori infection. Strict adherence to gluten-free diet, associated to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) administration and eradication treatment for H. pylori infection, led to a marked

improvement of clinical status. Our experience supports the pathogenetic role Elafibranor order of increased intestinal permeability in the course of CD and H. pylori infection to induce PBC. Future studies are needed to clarify this link to, and in particular the role played by abnormal intestinal permeability and infectious agents in the pathogenesis of PBC.”
“Objective: A school-based survey was performed in 1346 adolescents aged 15-18 years to determine the relationship between Staurosporine cell line “overweight” and hypertension among adolescents in a western city in Turkey with a low prevalence of “overweight”.\n\nMethods: The data were collected by a self administered questionnaire. Weight and height

of adolescents were measured. US CDC pediatric anthropometric reference data were used to establish the body mass index (BMI) percentile. “At risk of overweight” (BMI-for-age and sex >= 85(th), and <95(th) percentile) and “overweight” (BMI-for-age and sex >= 95(th) percentile) were defined. Hypertension (systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure that is >= 95(th) percentile for sex, age and height percentile) was defined according to the 4(th) Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents (2004). The Chi-square test, Chi-square test for trend and logistic regression models were used for analysis.\n\nResults: Overall, prevalence of “at risk of overweight” and “overweight” were found to be 10.7% and 3.2%, respectively. About 3.5% of the adolescents were hypertensive.

The challenges ahead include development of clinical methods and/

The challenges ahead include development of clinical methods and/or laboratory testing that will accurately PD173074 identify which infants are at particularly high risk of SIDS but also means by which their deaths can be prevented.”
“Accumulation of beta-amyloid (A beta), produced by the proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein

(APP) by beta- and gamma-secretase, is widely believed to be associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Research around the high-throughput screening hit (S)-4-chlorophenylsulfonyl isoleucinol led to the identification of the Notch-1-sparing (9.5-fold) gamma-secretase inhibitor (S)-N-(5-chlorothiophene-2-sulfonyl)-beta,beta-diethylalaninol 7.b.2 (A beta (40/42) EC(50) = 28 nM), which is efficacious in reduction of A beta production in vivo. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Children with prenatal exposure to

cocaine are at higher risk for negative behavioral function and attention difficulties, and have demonstrated brain diffusion abnormalities in frontal white matter regions. However, brain regions beyond frontal and callosal areas have not been investigated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTI data were collected on Kinase Inhibitor Library concentration 42 youth aged 14-16 years; subjects were divided into three groups based on detailed exposure histories: those with prenatal exposure to cocaine but not alcohol (prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), n=12), prenatal exposure to cocaine and alcohol (cocaine and

alcohol exposure (CAE), n=17), and controls (n=13). Tractography was performed and along-tract diffusion parameters were examined for group differences and correlations with executive function measures. In the right arcuate fasciculus and cingulum, the CAE group had higher fractional anisotropy (FA) and/or lower mean diffusivity (MD) than the other two groups. The PCE group demonstrated lower FA in the right arcuate and higher MD in the splenium of the corpus callosum than controls. Diffusion parameters in tracts with group differences correlated with measures of executive function. In conclusion, these Y-27632 diffusion differences in adolescents with prenatal cocaine exposure suggest localized, long-term structural brain alterations that may underlie attention and response-inhibition difficulties. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“Over 100 green-colored colonies were isolated from environmental samples when cultivating on a BG11 agar medium, and 4 strains showing different morphologies were selected based on light microscopic observation. Among these strains, the microalgal species with the highest growth rate under 10% CO2 was identified as Ettlia sp. YC001 using an 18S rDNA-based phylogenetic analysis and morphological comparison. The highest cell density of 3.10 g/L (based on dry cell weight) and biomass productivity of 0.

The observed level of risk discrimination could inform targeted s

The observed level of risk discrimination could inform targeted screening and prevention strategies. Further discrimination may be achievable through combining the PRS with lifestyle/environmental factors, although these were not considered in this report.”
“Objective: The aim of www.selleckchem.com/products/AG-014699.html this study was to evaluate the use of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) for genetic analysis of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) from pregnancy loss. aCGH results were compared with results from

karyotyping and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis to assess the suitability of aCGH as a method for detecting a variety of known chromosomal abnormalities. It was determined which technique gave the most valuable information. Method: Twenty anonymised samples from CVS were analyzed by aCGH, MLPA, and karyotyping. Omipalisib Results: Ten cases

were identified as normal by all three methods. Aneuploidy was detected in four cases by all three methods. Partial deletion and duplication was detected in two cases by aCGH and karyotyping but missed by MLPA. In addition, mosaicism was detected by aCGH in 3 of 20 cases missed by MLPA and karyotyping. Conclusion: aCGH is a rapid, automated, reliable, high-resolution technique to diagnose unbalanced chromosomal abnormalities. In this study, aCGH analysis accurately identified all chromosomal abnormalities in CVS from pregnancy loss, suggesting that it is suitable in the clinical setting for prenatal diagnosis.”
“Background: Somatostatin plays an important role in the communication between the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. Although somatostatin or its analogues have been shown to modulate a number of immune functions, their immunomodulatory effects are not uniform and YH25448 supplier are strongly dependent on the underlying cell system. Aim: The aim of our study was to analyze the immunomodulatory effects of somatostatin and its analogue octreotide on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. Materials/subjects: We used lipopolysaccharide-activated cells from normal glucose tolerant (NGT) subjects and from Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients as T2DM is associated with

chronic, low-grade inflammation, and measured immune mediator release with multiplex bead-based assays. Results: Our data showed no statistically significant effects on the secretion of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-a as well as the chemokines IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, either on PBMC from T2DM patients or on those from NGT controls. However, a trend towards a dose-dependent biphasic effect was observed for IL-6, IL-10 and MCP-1 with reduced immune mediator levels at low and increased/unaltered levels at higher somatostatin or octreotide concentrations. These observations could not be explained by interference with cell viability or proliferation.

Pathologically, NK-cell lymphomas show a polymorphic neoplastic i

Pathologically, NK-cell lymphomas show a polymorphic neoplastic infiltrate with angioinvasion and angiodestruction. The lymphoma cells are CD2(+), cytoplasmic CD3 epsilon(+) and CD56(+), with germline T-cell receptor gene. There is an almost invariable clonal episomal infection with click here Epstein Barr virus. Clinically, NK-cell lymphomas can be classified into nasal, non-nasal and aggressive lymphoma/leukemia subtypes. Most nasal NK-cell lymphomas present with stage I/II disease. The early use of radiotherapy, either alone or concomitantly/sequentially with chemotherapy, is the most important factor in achieving

successful treatment. Many stage I/II patients receiving radiotherapy alone fail systemically, so the use of chemotherapy is also considered necessary. Chemotherapy is indicated for stage III/IV nasal NK-cell lymphoma, and the non-nasal and aggressive subtypes. Recent regimens that incorporate the use of L-asparaginase have resulted in substantial improvements in outcome in high-risk, refractory or relapsed patients. High-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation with autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells may be beneficial to selected patients. Prognostication of patients with clinical prognostic models and presentation circulating Epstein Barr DNA load may be useful in the stratification of patients for various treatment modalities.”
“Nutrition and physical activity

in early childhood influence the healthy development

and well-being of children. The network “Healthy in life – Young Family Network”, a project by “IN FORM, German national initiative to promote healthy diets and physical Selleckchem S3I-201 activity”, has developed recommendations for nutrition and physical activity for children 1-3 years old.\n\nRegular mealtimes should be alternated with periods of abstinence from eating. Communal mealtimes in a friendly atmosphere are desirable. Paying attention to S3I-201 in vivo signs of hunger and satiety from children contributes to development of a healthy eating behavior. A balanced family diet rich in variety can fulfil the needs of infants. Nuts, almonds and hard pieces of food represent a danger due to aspiration. Raw animal meat and uncooked meals prepared from it should be avoided. A confirmed medical diagnosis is necessary before food can be excluded from nutrition due to incompatibility. The physical activity of infants should be actively supported and the natural urge for movement should not be restricted. Inactivity should be limited.”
“Selectively-transparent and conducting photonic crystals (STCPCs) made of alternating layers of sputtered indium-tin oxide (ITO) and spin-coated silica (SiO2) nanoparticle films exhibit Bragg-reflectance peaks in the visible spectrum of 95% reflectivity and have a full width at half maximum that is greater than 200 nm. At the same time, their conductive properties are comparable to that of solid sputtered ITO films.

The aim of the study was to analyze and detect prognostic factors

The aim of the study was to analyze and detect prognostic factors in surgically treated patients with synchronous single-organ metastasis from NSCLC.\n\nMethods: This is a retrospective single-center study including 29 patients with synchronous single-organ metastatic NSCLC who underwent lung resection and local treatment of the metastasis between 2002 and 2008. Overall survival was estimated from the date of lung surgery until last follow-up. The impact on survival of nine variables (age, pT, pN, site of metastasis, presence of solitary metastasis. R-resection status, presence of neoadjuvant or adjuvant

treatment, tumor histology) were further assessed.\n\nResults: Twenty-nine patients (20 males, 69%) with a median age of 62 (from 44 to 77) were included. Site of metastatic disease was the brain in 19, the lung in 8 and the adrenal glands in 2 patients. Histology was adenocarcinoma in 21, large-cell carcinoma CT99021 chemical structure in 3, squamous-cell carcinoma in 2 and other in 3 patients. Type of lung resection performed for primary tumors

were pneumonectomy in 3, bilobar resection in 3, lobar resection in 17 and sublobar resection in 6 patients. Survival at 1 and 5 years for the overall population reached 65% and 36%, respectively. Median survival was 20.5 months. Univariate regression model,analysis identified pathologic T stage as a predictor of survival. Patients with pT1-2 behaved statistically significantly

better (p = 0.007) compared to patients with pT3-4 tumors. No impact on survival for Selleckchem MRT67307 the other 8 variables has been shown.\n\nConclusions: LY2090314 The 5-year survival rate of 36% confirms that multimodality treatment including surgical lung resection should be considered in the therapy of single-site metatastatic NSCLC for selected patients. Pathologic T stage appeared to have significant impact on predicting patient survival. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Acyclovir is acyclic guanosine derivative. Benzylpenicillin (PCG) is a beta-lactam antibiotic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction (DDI) between PCG and acyclovir.\n\nMethod: When acyclovir and PCG were co-administered, plasma concentration of acyclovir, urinary excretion of acyclovir in vivo, uptake of acyclovir in kidney slices and uptake of acyclovir in human (h) OAT1/hOAT3-HEK293 cells were determined to examine the effect of PCG on urinary excretion of acyclovir.\n\nResults: The plasma concentration of acyclovir was increased markedly and accumulative renal excretion and renal clearance of acyclovir were decreased significantly after intravenous administration of acyclovir in combination with PCG. PCG could decrease the uptake of acyclovir in kidney slices and in hOAT1-/hOAT3-human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells.

TeLPI scores accounted for 63% of the variance of WAIS-III Full-S

TeLPI scores accounted for 63% of the variance of WAIS-III Full-Scale IQ, 62% of Verbal IQ, and 47% of Performance IQ and thus were considered valid for premorbid intelligence estimation.”
“Cholera is a diarrheal disease responsible for the deaths of thousands, possibly even hundreds of thousands of people every year, and its

impact is predicted to further increase with climate change. It has been known for decades that blood group O individuals suffer more severe symptoms of cholera compared with individuals with other blood groups (A, B and AB). The observed blood group dependence is likely to be caused by the major virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae, the cholera toxin (CT). Here, we

investigate the binding of ABH blood group determinants to both classical and El Tor CTB-pentamers using saturation transfer difference NMR and click here show that all three blood group determinants bind to both toxin variants. Although the details of the interactions differ, we see no large differences between the two toxin genotypes and observe very similar binding constants. We also show that the blood group determinants bind to a site distinct from that of the primary receptor, GM1. Transferred NOESY data confirm that the conformations of the blood group determinants in complex with both toxin variants are similar to those of reported X-ray and solution structures. Taken together, this detailed analysis provides a framework for the interpretation of the epidemiological Screening Library supplier data linking the PRT062607 severity of cholera infection and an individual’s blood group, and brings us one step closer to understanding the molecular basis of cholera blood group dependence.”
“The neurophysiological

basis of practice-induced gray matter increase is unclear. To study the relationship of practice-induced gray matter changes and neural activation, we conducted a combined longitudinal functional and morphometric (voxel-based morphometry) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study on mirror reading. Compared with normal reading, mirror reading resulted in an activation of the dorsolateral occipital cortex, medial occipital cortex, superior parietal cortex, medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as anterior insula and cerebellum. Daily practice of 15 min for 2 weeks resulted in an increased performance of mirror reading. After correction for pure performance effects, we found a practice-related decrease of activation at the right superior parietal cortex and increase of activation at the right dorsal occipital cortex. The longitudinal voxel-based morphometry analysis yielded an increase of gray matter in the right dorsolateral occipital cortex that corresponded to the peak of mirror-reading-specific activation.

Thus, this study reveals for the first time that KLF11 is an MAO

Thus, this study reveals for the first time that KLF11 is an MAO A regulator and is produced in response to neuronal stress, which transcriptionally activates MAOA. The novel glucocorticoid-KLF11-MAOA pathway may play a crucial role in modulating distinct pathophysiological LXH254 MAPK inhibitor steps in stress-related disorders.”
“The CD52-targeting antibody

alemtuzumab is established in clinical practice with convincing activity in relapsed and refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), particularly in patients with high-risk features and adverse prognosis. In the CAM307 study alemtuzumab was tested and finally approved as a first-line single agent, even though the hurdle with chlorambucil as the contender was not set very high. Within clinical trials, the drug demonstrated an excellent ability to eliminate minimal residual disease in blood and bone marrow, which has been correlated with a corresponding survival advantage in patients. However, in the maintenance setting, infectious complications due to severe T cell suppression have been highlighted and do not allow clinicans

to use Galardin alemtuzumab outside of clinical trials. This review discusses potential therapeutic niches and future applications of alemtuzumab with a focus on CLL front-line treatment.”
“Objective: To observe the expression of TLR4 in kidney tissue of rats with diabetic nephropathy and discuss the role of TLR4 in the occurrence and development of the diabetic nephropathy. Methods: A total of 60 clean male SD rats were selected and randomly divided Rabusertib ic50 into the modeling group

and control group after 1 week of breeding, including 30 rats in each group. Biochemical indices as well as the protein expression of TLR4 were observed and compared between two groups at 2 w, 4 w, 6 w, 8 w and 12 w after the modeling, and the correlation between TLR4 and each biochemical indexes was analyzed. Results: Rats in the modeling group had higher levels of blood glucose, 24-hour urine protein and blood urea nitrogen after the modeling, and showed the increase in the serum creatinine, kidney/body weight ratio, CRP and serum TNF-alpha at 4w after the modeling, with the significant difference compared to results of the control group (P<0.05).