This complex is called the death-inducing signaling complex , at which procaspase-8 is activated and cleaved. Since cellular FLICE-inhibitory
(c-FLIP) proteins contain death effector domains as well, these proteins compete with caspase-8 for FADD binding . Recruitment of c-FLIP results in altered death-inducing signaling complex composition and apoptosis inhibition. The Cflar gene encodes different c-FLIP protein isoforms, which can have opposing functions [7, 8]. For instance, c-FLIPL contains a caspase-like domain lacking proteolytic activity and acts in a pro-apoptotic manner when expressed in low amounts but in an anti-apoptotic manner when highly expressed
. In addition, Selleckchem RG 7204 Doxorubicin humans generate two solely anti-apoptotic acting short isoforms called c-FLIPS and c-FLIPR [6, 9], whose expression is regulated by a single nucleotide polymorphism . Strikingly, c-FLIPR expression in humans is associated with an increased risk of follicular lymphoma . The role of c-FLIPS in the human immune response has been extensively analyzed. For instance, c-FLIPS is highly induced in recently activated human T cells and contributes to resistance to CD95-induced apoptosis during the early phase of an immune response [11-14]. In contrast, the function of the c-FLIPR isoform remains enigmatic. Mouse models established so far for analysis of the physiological functions of short c-FLIP isoforms express human c-FLIPS in a T-cell-specific manner [15, 16]. Both studies reported decreased CD95-mediated apoptosis in transgenic T cells, normal lymphocyte
Amoxicillin cellularity, and decreased proliferation of T cells upon activation [15, 16]. However, since the murine Cflar gene (encoding c-FLIP) allows expression of c-FLIPR as the short isoform next to c-FLIPL but not c-FLIPS expression , the murine system seems to be a more suitable model for gaining a better understanding of the function of c-FLIPR in vivo. Of note, it is currently not known whether murine c-FLIPR is expressed endogenously at the protein level and whether it modulates the immune response during infection. To address these questions, we analyzed endogenous c-FLIP protein expression and show that murine c-FLIPR is induced during T-cell activation in a similar way as we previously reported for c-FLIPS in the human system . Moreover, we generated vavFLIPR mice expressing a c-FLIPR transgene under the control of the vav-promoter leading to expression in all hemato-poietic cells . vavFLIPR mice had normal numbers and frequencies of immune cells in the steady state. Upon challenge with Listeria monocytogenes, vavFLIPR mice exhibited less liver necrosis and a higher frequency of CD8+ T cells.