“The introduction of neurostimulation procedures for chronic drug-resistant primary headaches has offered new hope to patients, but has also introduced new problems. The methods to be used in assessing clinical outcomes and monitoring treatment
efficacy need careful attention. The International Headache Society guidelines recommend that treatment efficacy should be monitored by getting IPI-145 chemical structure patients to report the number of attacks per day, in a headache diary. The headache diary is a fundamental instrument for objectively assessing subjective pain in terms of headache frequency, intensity and duration and analgesic consumption. The huge discrepancy sometimes reported between patient satisfaction and headache improvement suggests that patient satisfaction should not be a primary efficacy endpoint, and more importantly should not be put forward as an argument in establishing
the efficacy of highly experimental neurostimulation procedures.”
“With the aim to modify the brittleness of polylactic acid (PLA), it was firstly melt blended with thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) at six different PLA wt % of 100, 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 compositions. The properties of PLA/TPU composite were characterized by means of electron microscopy, rheological, mechanical and thermal methods. The results showed that the brittle fracture of pure PLA
selleck chemicals was gradually transformed into ductile fracture with the addition PARP activity of the TPU elastomer. The notched impact strength of the composite at 10 wt % TPU was over three times higher than that of pure PLA. The composite was found to be a partially miscible system with shifted glass transition temperatures. The molten blend was shear-thinning fluid and it could be processed by conventional thermoplastic processes such as extrusion and injection molding. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 855-861, 2011″
“Study Design. A biomechanical in vitro study using human cadaveric spine.
Objective. To compare the biomechanical stability of pedicle screws versus various established posterior atlantoaxial fixations used to manage atlantoaxial instability.
Summary of Background Data. Rigid screw fixation of the atlantoaxial complex provides immediate stability and excellent fusion success though has a high risk of neurovascular complications. Some spine surgeons thus insert shorter C2 pedicle or pars/isthmus screws as alternatives to minimize the latter risks. The biomechanical consequences of short pedicle screw fixation remain unclear, however.
Methods. Seven human cadaveric cervical spines with the occiput attached (C0-C3) had neutral zone (NZ) and range of motion (ROM) evaluated in three modes of loading.