The surveys of 2009 and 2010 were funded by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. None of the authors has received grants, speakers fees, etc., from any commercial body within the past 2 years. “
“The effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23)
in preventing pneumococcal disease in HIV-infected people is a subject of debate. We reviewed the clinical evidence for recommending Selleckchem Erastin PPV-23 for use in HIV-infected patients. A systematic search of peer-reviewed publications (EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and PubMed/BioMed Central), the Internet and grey literature was conducted. Three hundred and eighteen documents were reviewed. Studies reporting risk estimates for all-cause pneumonia, all-pneumococcal disease, and/or invasive
pneumococcal disease after PPV-23 immunization in HIV-infected adults were included. We identified one randomized trial and 15 observational studies. While the randomized trial found a 60% increased risk of all-cause pneumonia among vaccinees, 11 of the 15 observational studies found various degrees of disease protection associated with PPV-23 immunization. However, most studies suffered from limited confounder control in their multivariate analyses, despite study data suggesting substantial differences between the characteristics of exposed and unexposed individuals. The current clinical evidence provides only moderate support for PPV-23 immunization of Dabrafenib purchase HIV-infected adults. More data are needed on the efficacy of newer conjugated pneumococcal www.selleck.co.jp/products/Staurosporine.html vaccines, which may be more immunogenic and could potentially replace PPV-23 in the future. Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia among people with HIV infection and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality . The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has decreased the incidence of all-cause pneumonia, but pneumonia remains more common among HIV-infected than non-HIV-infected individuals, even in subgroups
of patients with CD4 counts above 500 cells/μL [2,3]. Whether the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has declined after the introduction of HAART is uncertain, and IPD may be up to 100 times more frequent among HIV-infected persons than non-HIV-infected persons [4–6]. The effectiveness of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine has been questioned since the first pneumococcal vaccine failure in a patient with AIDS was reported in 1984 . In immunological studies, the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23) has consistently elicited capsule-specific pneumococcal antibodies in HIV-infected individuals, but the magnitude and duration of post-vaccination responses in these individuals have often been lower than those seen in immune-competent individuals [8–13].