The authors wish to thank Dr D. Yu. Sorokin (Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, RAS) for valuable advice during the experiments, Dr E. Detkova (Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Selleckchem NVP-AUY922 RAS) for analysis of the molar G + C contents of the DNA and Dr G. A. Osipov (Bakulev Center, Cardio-Vascular surgery, Russia) for performing cellular fatty acid analysis of strains. This work was supported by grants from the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research (10-04-01500a) and the Program of Presidium of
Russian Academy of Sciences Molecular and Cell Biology. “
“The cold acclimatization response in many bacterial species is a tightly regulated process, which ensures the correct folding of macromolecules. In enterobacteria, this response is in part dependent on polynucleotide phosphorylase, which is encoded by the gene pnp. Based on transcriptional analysis of the pnp locus of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, we show that pnp and the adjacent membrane lipoprotein nlpI gene form an operon with both genes contributing independently to the cold acclimatization
Y-27632 in vivo response at 15 °C. Our findings thereby define a new role for NlpI in bacterial cold acclimatization. Many microorganisms experience wide temperature fluctuations in the natural environment. As macromolecular folding strongly relies on temperature, it follows that any shift in temperature places a substantial demand on the cell in terms of the biochemical functionality (Hurme & Rhen, 1998; Klinkert & Narberhaus, 2009). Many bacteria have therefore evolved a conserved mechanism for cold acclimatization, which involves the induction of specific cold shock proteins that permit growth at lower temperatures (Phadtare et al., 1999). In the enterobacterium Escherichia coli, the sudden transfer from 37 to 15 °C results in a response termed ‘cold shock’ that associates with a modulation in RNA turnover (Phadtare, 2004; Phadtare & Severinov, 2010). A hallmark of this response is the induction of cold shock proteins (Csps) (Phadtare et al., 1999). The major cold shock protein CspA acts as a RNA chaperone and contains a cold
shock domain reminiscent of the S1 RNA binding motif. Expression of CspA itself is regulated post-translationally by temperature-dependent Megestrol Acetate structural alterations in the mRNA encoding CspA (Giuliodori et al., 2010). In addition to dedicated Csps, the cold acclimatization of E. coli requires components of the RNA degradosome, including the phosphorolytic exoribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase, pnp; Beran & Simons, 2001; Yamanaka & Inouye, 2001) and the proposed alternative cold shock RNA helicase CsdA (Prud’homme-Généreux et al., 2004; Turner et al., 2007). As the cold-restricted growth phenotype of E. coli csdA mutants can be complemented by plasmids encoding other proteins interacting with RNA (Awano et al.