01). The temperature measurements showed that both irradiation conditions caused intrapulpal temperature increase below 2 °C. The highest temperature increase and the time after which the temperature returned to its initial values were respectively 0.3 °C and 12 s for the irradiation with 8 J/cm2 and 1.8 °C and 93 s for the irradiation with 11 J/cm2 (Fig. 1). The results of the present study showed that the irradiation of dentine with a CO2 laser (λ = 10.6 μm) at 11 J/cm2 and 10 ms pulse duration, after fluoride application was indeed able to cause a decrease in the loss of calcium and phosphorous in the demineralization solution. The Selleckchem Antidiabetic Compound Library calcium loss in this group
was even statistically significant lower than the
observed in the fluoride-treated group. Thus, the possibility of enhancing the effects of fluoride through CO2 laser irradiation has been demonstrated. Especially interesting to note is that these results were obtained with a clinical CO2 laser and using parameters which did not cause any visible thermal damage to the tooth surfaces. Similar findings have been observed by other authors measuring calcium and phosphorous dissolution14, 15 and 16 and lesion depth19 in CO2 laser-irradiated dentine. Nonetheless decrease in calcium and phosphorous Ivacaftor datasheet losses after irradiation with the set of parameters used in the present study has not been demonstrated before. Moreover, most of the previous studies were conducted with a CO2 laser emitting in the continuous-wave mode, which is not the safest condition for irradiating vital teeth.18 The lowest energy density tested in this study (8 J/cm2) did not cause any significant reduction in mineral loss either alone or in combination with fluoride.
This was initially not expected, because according to the literature and the characteristics of the laser–tissue interaction for the 10.6 μm wavelength, this energy density could already be sufficient to promote the necessary changes in the tissue. For example, in a study conducted with the same pulse duration (10 ms) as used in the present study, but in enamel, a 67%-inhibition of demineralization was observed with 10 J/cm2.24 Thus, knowing that for similar irradiation intensities the temperatures produced in dentine are two times higher than they ASK1 are in enamel, theoretically only half of the amount of an energy density, successfully tested in enamel, would be necessary to cause the same effects in dentine.18 Therefore, we expected to obtain a reduction in calcium loss already with the lowest energy density tested in the present study, but this was not confirmed. These results are probably explained by the fact that the energy applied to the tissue is not the only factor influencing the temperature excursions. The number of pulses applied to the same spot and the repetition rate also play an important role in the gradients of temperature formed.