Conclusions: This study of older men and women adds to growing ev

Conclusions: This study of older men and women adds to growing evidence that aberrant sleep patterns may increase the risk of cardiovascular outcomes through its adverse impact on blood pressure and inflammation. Stattic ic50 (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In experimental animal studies, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) contributed to renal hypertrophy during

diabetes, and antibodies against TNF-alpha have led to improved histological lesions in animals with nephrotoxicity and diabetic nephropathy. We aimed to evaluate TNF-alpha system activity in association with renal histology in patients with type 2 diabetes. This is a prospective, cross-sectional study of 22 patients with type 2 diabetes (16 men), 13 with microalbuminuria and 9 with normoalbuminuria. Plasma-soluble TNF-alpha receptor 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) concentrations were used as surrogates of TNF-alpha system activity. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was analysed using I-125-Iodothalamine. Albumin excretion rate (AER) and a renal biopsy were performed in all subjects. AER did not associate significantly with mesangial expansion or interstitial fraction in these subjects (r < 0.12, P > 0.5). AER was also not associated with either sTNFR1 or sTNFR2 levels. However, after controlling for

GFR, the correlation between AER and sTNFR1 became significant (r = 0.47, P = 0.03). sTNFR1 correlated with age (r = 0.65, P < HIF-1 cancer 0.001), mesangial expansion (r = 0.59, P = 0.004) and interstitial fraction (r = 0.58, P = 0.005). After controlling for age, body mass index and blood pressure, the association of TNFR1 with mesangial expansion persisted significant. Circulating sTNFR2 concentrations were not significantly associated with histological changes. In summary, structural kidney damage in patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with TNF-alpha system activity and specifically with plasma sTNFR1 concentrations.”
“Chlamydophila felis is a causative agent of acute and chronic conjunctivitis buy AZD1208 and pneumonia in cats (feline chlamydiosis).

Also, C. felis is a suspected zoonotic agent of such diseases as non-Chlamydia trachomatis conjunctivitis in humans, although this is controversial. At present, there is no serodiagnostic system that specifically detects C. felis infection conveniently. Current systems use antigens such as lipopolysaccharide that cross-react with all chlamydia species. In addition, it is difficult to distinguish between cats that are vaccinated with the commercial vaccine against C. felis and cats that are infected with C. felis. Here, we describe a new candidate diagnostic antigen for diagnosis of C. felis infection, CF0218, that was obtained by screening a genomic expression library of C. felis Fe/C-56 with C. felis-immunized serum.

In terms of stability it

has become customary to distingu

In terms of stability it

has become customary to distinguish between obligate and non-obligate interactions dependent on whether or not the protomers can exist independently. In terms of spatio-temporal control protein interactions can be either simultaneously possible (SP) or mutually exclusive (ME). In the former case a network hub interacts see more with several proteins at the same time, offering each of them a separate interface, while in the latter case the hub interacts with its partners one at a time via the same binding site. So far different types of interactions were distinguished based on the properties of the corresponding binding interfaces derived from known three-dimensional structures of protein complexes.\n\nResults: Here we present PiType, an accurate 3D structure-independent computational method for classifying protein interactions into simultaneously possible (SP) and mutually exclusive (ME) as well as into obligate and non-obligate. Our classifier exploits features of the binding partners predicted from amino acid sequence, their functional similarity, and network topology. We find that the constituents of non-obligate complexes

possess a higher degree of structural disorder, more short linear motifs, and lower functional similarity compared to obligate interaction partners while SP and ME interactions are characterized by significant differences in network topology. Each interaction type is associated with a distinct set of biological functions. Moreover, interactions within multi-protein complexes tend to be enriched in one type of interactions.\n\nConclusion: PiType Alisertib inhibitor does not rely on atomic structures and is thus suitable A-1331852 inhibitor for characterizing proteome-wide interaction datasets. It can also be used to identify sub-modules within protein complexes.

PiType is available for download as a self-installing package from”
“Background: Normally, chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has been studied using echo-colour Doppler (ECD). Subjects are examined in the supine and sitting positions, in accordance with a static protocol without rotation of the head. A dynamic approach, to assess venous sizes with different degrees of head rotation, has only been performed to improve jugular venous catheterisation. These echographic studies have suggested that head rotation to the contralateral side increases the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the internal jugular veins (IJVs) in supine subjects. Our goal was to evaluate the behaviour of CSA of the IJVs during supine head rotation in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with CCSVI, compared to healthy controls (HCs).\n\nMethods: The IJVs of 313 MS patients with CCSVI (male 43.8%, male/female 137/176; mean age 45 years old, range 19-77 years) and 298 HCs, matched by gender (male 43.6%, male/female 130/168) and age (mean age 46 years old, range 20-79 years), were compared using ECD.

“The largenet2 C++ library provides an infrastructure for

“The largenet2 C++ library provides an infrastructure for the simulation of large dynamic and adaptive networks with discrete node and IPI-145 link states.”
“In this report, we describe the experience with immunization against pandemic influenza A H1N1 in

children with cancer treated at a pediatric oncology department during the pandemic season (2009). According to the guidelines, vaccination of all children with cancer receiving chemotherapy as well as those who had completed treatment was scheduled. Among the 140 children who were eligible for immunization, 122 were immunized, achieving a compliance rate of 87% despite negative publicity and low vaccine uptake in the general population. The vaccine was tolerated and none of the vaccinated children developed influenza. It is concluded that high immunization selleck chemicals rates can be achieved among pediatric oncology patients.”
“OBJECTIVES: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a consequence of gonadotoxic chemoradiotherapy given in antyneoplasia

treatment. In young women it will correlate with menopausal symptoms which tend to appear due to depleted ovarian follicle reserve.\n\nDESIGN: It was a case series study that included women 18-50 years old who were treated for malignancy with gonadotoxic chemioradiotherapy. We have measured blood hormonal levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2) and progesterone within one month of various hormone replacement therapy (HRT).\n\nRESULTS: We have observed different kind of hormonal reaction according to FSH, LH, estradiol and progesterone levels due to various

hormonal replacement therapy. The administration of various HRT regimens presented with a decrease in the blood concentration of estradiol E2 and progesterone and a concomitant increase of FSH and LH. These findings demonstrate a shift to physiological ranges and a simultaneous improvement of symptoms associated with CI-POF.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: The most appropriate therapy needs to be selected according to the patient’s alleviation of symptoms and correction of blood hormone levels.”
“The mass specific optical absorption coefficient (MAC) of Humic-Like Substances (HULIS), isolated from a fine aerosol fraction (PM1) collected at Autophagy Compound Library high throughput a typical Central European rural background site (Kpuszta) was measured in the re-dispersed aerosol phase at 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm wavelengths by our recently developed four wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer. It is found to be practically negligible in the visible (0.03 m(2) g(-1) @532 nm), while in the ultraviolet (4.9 m(2) g(-1) @266 nm) it becomes comparable with that of black carbon (BC), a major absorbing fraction of the ambient aerosol. This type of wavelength dependency was already hypothesized for HULIS aerosol, but it was proved previously only by indirect measurements on HULIS samples dissolved in the aqueous phase.

Here we present

direct structural evidence from cryo-elec

Here we present

direct structural evidence from cryo-electron tomography data that thread-like micelles with a uniform diameter of 6.5 GS-1101 manufacturer nm are organized into loops of different sizes at a surfactin concentration of >15 mol%. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Orexin-A (OXA) regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. It increases insulin secretion in vivo and in vitro, although controversial effects of OXA on plasma glucagon are reported. We characterized the effects of OXA on glucagon secretion and identify intracellular target molecules in glucagon-producing cells. Glucagon secretion from in situ perfused rat pancreas, isolated rat pancreatic islets, and clonal pancreatic A-cells (InR1-G9) were measured by RIA. The expression of orexin receptor 1 (OXR1) was detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence. The effects of OXA on cAMP, adenylate-cyclase-kinase (AKT), phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK)-1, forkhead box O-1 (Foxo1), and cAMP response element-binding

protein were measured by ELISA and Western blot. Intracellular calcium (Ca-i(2+)) concentration was detected by fura-2and glucagon expression by real-time PCR. Foxo1 was silenced in InR1-G9 cells by transfecting cells with short interfering RNA. OXR1 was expressed on pancreatic A and InR1-G9 cells. OXA reduced glucagon secretion from perfused rat pancreas, isolated rat pancreatic islets, and InR1-G9 cells. OXA inhibited proglucagon Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor gene expression via the phosphatidylinositol PHA-739358 3-kinase-dependent pathway. OXA decreased cAMP and Ca-i(2+) concentration and increased AKT, PDK-1, and Foxo1 phosphorylation. Silencing of Foxo1 caused a reversal of the inhibitory effect of OXA on proglucagon gene expression. Our study provides the first in vitro evidence for the interaction

of OXA with pancreatic A cells. OXA inhibits glucagon secretion and reduces intracellular cAMP and Ca-i(2+) concentration. OXA increases AKT/PDK-1 phosphorylation and inhibits proglucagon expression via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase- and Foxo-1-dependent pathways. As a physiological inhibitor of glucagon secretion, OXA may have a therapeutic potential to reduce hyperglucagonemia in type 2 diabetes.”
“The British Bangladeshi community is one of the youngest and fastest growing ethnic minority groups in the UK. Many report poor socio-economic and health profiles with the existence of substantial health inequalities, particularly in relation to type 2 diabetes. Although there is compelling evidence for the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, there is little understanding of how best to tailor treatments to the needs of minority ethnic groups. Little is known about nutrition related lifestyle choices in the Bangladeshi community or the factors influencing such decisions.

Results LN was present in 36% of all patients and FDCs in 15%

\n\nResults LN was present in 36% of all patients and FDCs in 15% of patients with LN. Presence of lymphocyte aggregates differed over time. LN was associated with the degree of synovial inflammation. There was no relationship between the presence

of lymphocyte aggregates at baseline and definitive diagnosis or clinical outcome after follow-up.\n\nConclusions Momelotinib chemical structure Presence of lymphocyte aggregates is a dynamic phenomenon related to the degree of synovitis and can be detected in different forms of early arthritis. This feature does not appear to be related to clinical outcome.”
“A novel resource centre for TP53 mutations and mutants has been developed( this website TP53 gene dysfunction can be found in the majority of human cancer types. The potential use of TP53 mutation as a biomarker for clinical studies or exposome analysis has led to the publication

of thousands of reports describing the TP53 gene status in > 10 000 tumours. The UMD TP53 mutation database was created in 1990 and has been regularly updated. The 2012 release of the database has been carefully curated, and all suspicious reports have been eliminated. It is available either as a flat file that can be easily manipulated or as novel multi-platform analytical software that has been designed to analyse various aspects of TP53 mutations. Several tools to ascertain TP53 mutations are also available for download. We have developed TP53MULTLoad, a manually curated database providing comprehensive details on the properties of 2549 missense TP53 mutants. More than 100 000 entries have been arranged in 39 different activity fields, such as change of transactivation on various promoters, apoptosis or growth arrest. For several hot spot mutants, multiple Selleck PF-04929113 gain of function activities are also included. The database can be easily browsed via a graphical user interface.”

25-year-old woman presented with fever, arthralgia and proteinuria exhibiting leukopenia, hypocomplementemia, increased serum IgG and IgG4, and positive antinuclear and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies. Renal biopsy revealed membranous nephropathy with tubulointerstitial nephritis. IgG subclass immunofluorescence revealed intense IgG4 expression in glomeruli, but no expression of IgG2. Observations resembled membranous lupus nephritis with tubulointerstitial nephritis; however, elevated IgG4, low titers of antinuclear and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies, IgG4-bearing cell infiltration, and characteristic IgG subclass deposition in glomeruli prompted diagnosis of IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis with membranous nephropathy. It is challenging but important to distinguish lupus nephritis from IgG4-related kidney disease.”
“Introduction: CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with various biological functions.

To fully understand the implications

To fully understand the implications BI 2536 supplier of these

errors we will highlight some of them with the intent to harmonize future work in this field.”
“Background/Aims: The aim of the present paper is to compare the clinicopathologic features of perforated gastric cancer and the effect of surgical intervention.\n\nMethodology: Twenty-seven patients with perforated gastric carcinoma underwent surgical intervention in one medical center and were retrospectively reviewed. The clinicopathologic features included age, sex, surgical treatment, ulcer depths, tumor stage, and tumor characteristics. The end point of the study was compared to the survival of different treatments. Patients with gastric cancer without perforation were enrolled randomly in a ratio of 1: 4 to compare the clinical features and long-term outcomes.\n\nResults: All patients underwent emergency surgical intervention, including gastrectomy in 17 patients, and simple closure of the perforation in 10 cases. There were no significant differences in the patients’ characteristics except tumor status and staging (p=0.008 and p<0.001, respectively). The surgical mortality was also higher in those patients who underwent simple closure (40% mortality rate, p=0.047). The clinical features of 16 patients with perforated gastric cancer were compared to those

of 64 patients with gastric cancer VX-689 Cell Cycle inhibitor without perforation. The survival rate was not significantly different in these 2 groups and the median survival time was 17.3 months (p=0.184). However, ulcer depth was significantly greater in patients with perforation and 10 cases (62.5%) had layer of serosa involvement.\n\nConclusions: Perforated gastric cancer usually represented at advanced stages; but gastrectomy offered a better clinical outcome. The long-term outcome in patients with perforated gastric cancer was not inferior compared to those with gastric cancer without perforation.”
“To identify differentially expressed genes in adult hepatic stem cells, we performed suppression-subtractive hybridization (SSH) between adult porcine hepatic stem-like cells (HSLCs) and hepatocytes, and the expression

of selected genes was assessed Compound C in porcine fetal livers and regenerating liver in an 80% hepatectomy model. SSH and subsequent differential screening selected 39 clones that were expressed differentially in HSLCs, including six known genes, 10 unknown genes, one unidentified gene and some chimeric fragments. Four of these genes showed significantly higher expression in HSLCs than in mature hepatocytes: anti-leukoproteinase, matrix Gla protein, amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) and dickkopf-3 (DKK-3). Among them, the mRNA expression of APP and DKK-3 was significantly higher in fifth GW fetal liver than in seventh and thirteenth GW fetal and adult livers, unlike the expression patterns of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) or albumin.

The corresponding nu(3) CO32- antisymmetric stretching modes are

The corresponding nu(3) CO32- antisymmetric stretching modes are found at around 1410 and 1475 cm(-1). Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“We report a

case of a 56-year-old woman with occult breast cancer (OBC) who presented with a hard metastatic mass in the left axilla, but no breast mass was palpable. Autophagy inhibitor Biopsy of the lymph node was performed and histological examination identified a metastatic ductal carcinoma poorly differentiated. Immunohistochemistry showed that the resected lymph node was positive for both estrogen and progesterone receptor. No pathological findings were obtained through mammography, ultrasonography and MRI of both breasts. Systemic examinations (CT, endoscopy) releaved no extramammary primary lesions. All these data suggested an OBC and a left modified radical

mastectomy was performed. Pathological examination failed to find the primary cancer lesion on the removed specimen. The patient was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy and she presents no evidence of disease 4 years after surgery. Eur. J. Oncol., 14 (2), 109-113, 2009″
“The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercising at different intensities over 7 weeks on components of physical fitness and CVD risk factors. Forty-seven boys and 10 girls, (16.4 PFTα order +/- 0.7 years of age) were divided into a moderate, high intensity, or a control group. All participants had indices of obesity and blood pressure recorded in addition to four physical performance measures pre- and post-intervention. In addition, the intervention groups repeated the physical performance measures at the 4th week phase of the intervention. Following the intervention, significant improvements

(P < 0.05) in the high-intensity group were found in the 20 MSFT, agility, CMJ and 10m sprint post-intervention. AZD1208 manufacturer Participants in the moderate intensity group displayed significant improvements (P < 0.05) in both the CMJ and 20 MSFT post-intervention. Body fat % significantly improved (P < 0.01) in the moderate group only post-intervention. Interestingly, Systolic blood pressure significantly improved post-intervention (112 +/- 10 vs 106 +/- 11 mmHg) (P = 0.017) in the high intensity group. In conclusion, high-intensity exercise over 7 weeks is a very time efficient means of improving important components of physical fitness in adolescents.”
“In this study we examined the inhibition of hepatic dyslipidemia by Eucommia ulmoides extract (EUE). Using a screening assay for BAX inhibition we determined that EUE regulates BAX-induced cell death. Among various cell death stimuli tested EUE regulated palmitate-induced cell death, which involves lysosomal BAX translocation.

In addition, non-bridging oxygens do not frame The conversion of

In addition, non-bridging oxygens do not frame. The conversion of Ge(IV) to Ge(VI) does not continue further to the formation of the isolated octahedrons

because begins to reconvert Ge(VI) back to Ge(IV) and Ge(V) with the simultaneous formation of non-bridging oxygens. The excess of oxygen can be accommodated in the host network by the formation of the [CuO(n)] structural units. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Myelination by oligodendroglial cells (OLs) enables the propagation of action potentials along neuronal axons, which is essential for rapid information flow in the central nervous system. Besides saltatory conduction, the myelin sheath also protects axons against inflammatory and oxidative insults. Loss of myelin results in axonal damage and ultimately neuronal loss in demyelinating disorders. However, accumulating evidence indicates that OLs also provide support to neurons via mechanisms beyond the insulating function of myelin. More importantly, an increasing volume of reports indicates defects of OLs in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, sometimes even preceding neuronal loss in pre-symptomatic episodes, suggesting that OL pathology may be an important mechanism contributing to the initiation and/or progression of neurodegeneration.

This review focuses on the emerging picture of neuronal support LY3039478 chemical structure by OLs in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders through diverse molecular and cellular mechanisms, including direct neuron-myelin interaction, metabolic support by OLs, and neurotrophic factors produced by and/or acting on OLs.”
“Purpose of review\n\nHuman cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and disease remains one of the major complications after allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation. Cell-mediated immunity is essential in counteracting CMV infection as evident by detection of high frequencies of CMV-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) lymphocytes among the healthy CMV-seropositive individuals. Adoptive transfer of

CMV-specific JQ-EZ-05 ic50 T cells to speed up reconstitution of CMV-specific immunity potentially offers clinical protection and reduces drug toxicities as well as outgrowth of drug-resistant strains from prolonged antiviral therapy.\n\nRecent findings\n\nDifferent strategies to generate CMV-specific T cell have been explored. Similarly, vast diversities in term of cell dose and composition of the cellular product have been infused into small cohorts of patients. To date, a number of phase I/II clinical trials have demonstrated the feasibility of adoptive transferred CMV-specific T cells as prophylaxis, pre-emptive or therapeutic measure. In general, all these strategies showed variable degrees of efficacy without obvious adverse event particularly with regard to the induction of graft-versus-host disease.\n\nSummary\n\nIn this review, we would like to give a comprehensive synopsis regarding therapeutic application of CMV-specific T cells in fighting CMV infection.

Our previous studies indicated that loss of kindlin-1 resulted in

Our previous studies indicated that loss of kindlin-1 resulted in abnormalities associated with integrin functions, such as adhesion, proliferation, polarization, and motility of epidermal cells. Here, we disclosed novel FERMT1 mutations in KS and used them, in combination with small-interfering RNA, protein, and imaging studies, to uncover selleck compound new functions for kindlin-1 in keratinocytes; and to discern the molecular

pathology of KS. We show that kindlin-1 forms molecular complexes with beta 1 integrin, alpha-actinin, migfilin, and focal adhesion kinase and regulates cell shape and migration by controlling lamellipodia formation. Kindlin-1 governs these processes by signaling via Rho family GTPases, and it is required to maintain the pool of GTP-bound, active Rac1, RhoA and Cdc42, and the phosphorylation of their downstream effectors p21-activated kinase 1, LIM kinase, and cofilin. Loss of these kindlin-1 functions forms the biological basis for the epithelial cell

fragility and atrophy in the pathology of KS. (Am J Pathol 2009, 175:1442-1452; DOI: 10.2353/ajpath.2009.090203)”
“Environmental factors play Buparlisib solubility dmso an essential role in the etiology of diseases of the hematopoietic system. Such factors include soil and water pollution and the presence of metals and toxic compounds in the air. Measuring the content of metallic elements in rainwater has become an accepted procedure for environmental pollution monitoring. In accordance with the above, it was decided to study relations between the content of selected elements in rainwater and hospitalization frequency due to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, C91 on ICD-10) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, C92 on ICD-10). It can be assumed selleck chemicals llc that hospitalization frequency is a reliable indicator of exacerbations of these diseases. The annual average of hospitalizations due to a given disease during the years 2000-2002 was correlated with the annual average content of a given element in rainwater using the Spearman’s correlation indicator

to describe the relationship between the element content and the disease that is possibly a consequence of the element’s presence in rainwater. In cases of CLL for all the subjected population and for men, no statistically significant correlations were found. For women, statistically significant correlations were found for chromium (r = 0.66), lead (r = 0.58), copper (r = 0.58), and cadmium (r = 0.51). For CML in all the studied population significant, negative correlations were found for magnesium (r = -0.6) and zinc (r = -0.52). In men, significant negative correlations were seen for magnesium (r = -0.69 and zinc (r = -0.55). No significant correlations were found in women.

Some of these are considerably frequent in, and substantially spe

Some of these are considerably frequent in, and substantially specific to, distinct MLN subtypes,

and occur at single or several hotspots. They include the V600E BRAF mutation in hairy cell leukemia, the L265P MYD88 mutation in Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, the G17V RHOA mutation in angioimmunoblastic Vorinostat mouse T-cell lymphoma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, and the Y640F//D661Y/V/H/I//N647I STAT3 mutations in T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia. Detecting these mutations is highly valuable in diagnosing MLN subtypes. Defining these mutations also sheds light on the molecular pathogenesis of MLN, furthering development of molecular targeting therapies. In this review, we focus on the disease-specific gene mutations in MLN discovered by recent massive sequencing technologies.”
“INTRODUCTION No single study has established the superiority of one treatment of Kienbock’s disease over the other. Pooled outcome data

is presently considered the best way to add to the knowledge and understanding of Kienbock’s disease. METHODS A total of 12 patients (9 male and 3 female) with Kienbock’s disease were included in the present case series. The mean age of the 12 patients was 28 years. One patient presented in Lichtman stage I, five in Lichtman stage II, five in Lichtman stage IIIa, and one in Lichtman stage IV. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the obtained data were performed to identify any correlations. Selleckchem PARP inhibitor RESULTS The mean follow-up time was 62 months, and the mean modified Mayo wrist score improved from the preoperative value of 29.5 to the final value of 89.6. Lichtman stage at presentation showed moderate positive correlation with the duration of symptoms (r = 0.56), and a strong negative correlation with the preoperative and final modified Mayo scores (r = -0.89 and

r = -0.77, respectively). The final modified Mayo score showed moderate negative correlation with the duration of the symptoms (r = -0.55). There was a significant difference in the preoperative modified Mayo scores of patients who presented in stage II and those of patients who presented in stage IIIa (p = 0.03). However, the difference selleck compound in the final modified Mayo scores of the patients in these stages was not significant (p = 0.14). CONCLUSION Lichtman’s stage is moderately related to the duration of symptoms, suggesting natural progression of the disease. The final outcomes of stages II and IIIa were the same irrespective of the surgical treatment (radial shortening and/or vascularised bone grafting).”
“This paper reports the study of new 2-phenyl- and 2-methylpyrazolo[3,4-c]quinolin-4-ones (series A) and 4-amines (series B), designed as adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists.