Krebsmedizin 1991, 12: 1–14 62 Gutsch J, Berger H, Scholz G, De

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radikal operierten Mammakarzinom mit Polychemotherapie, Helixor und unbehandelter Kontrolle. Dtsch Zschr Onkol 1988, 94–100. 63. Lange O, Scholz G, Gutsch J: Modulation der subjektiven und objektiven Toxizität einer aggressiven Chemotherapie mit Helixor. Unpublished Report. 1985. 64. Loewe-Mesch A, Kuehn JH, Borho K, Abel U, Bauer C, Gerhard I, Schneeweiss A, Sohn C, Strowitzki Batimastat solubility dmso T, Hagens C: Adjuvante simultane Mistel-/Chemotherapie bei Mammakarzinom – Einfluss auf Immunparameter, Lebensqualität und Verträglichkeit. Forsch Komplementärmed 2008, 15: 22–30.CrossRef 65. Büssing A, Bischof M, Hatzmann W, Bartsch F, Soto-Vera D, Fronk E-M, Gmeindl M, Stein GM: Prevention of surgery-induced

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metastasiertem Mammakarzinom. Ergebnisse einer multizentrischen, komparativen, epidemiologischen Kohortenstudie in Deutschland und der Schweiz. Arzneim – Forsch/Drug Res 2004, 54: 456–466. 71. Schumacher K, Schneider B, Reich G, Stiefel T, Stoll G, Bock PR, Hanisch J, Beuth J: Influence of postoperative complementary treatment with lectin-standardized mistletoe extract on breast cancer patients. A controlled epidemiological multicentric retrolective cohort study. Anticancer Res 2003, 23: 5081–5088.PubMed 72. Schumacher K, Schneider B, Reich G, Stiefel T, Stoll G, Bock PR, Hanisch J, Beuth J: Postoperative komplementäre Therapie des primären Mammakarzinoms mit lektinnormiertem Mistelextrakt – eine epidemiologische, multizentrische retrolektive Kohortenstudie.

PubMedCrossRef 42 Fischer W: Pneumococcal lipoteichoic and teich

PubMedCrossRef 42. Fischer W: Pneumococcal lipoteichoic and teichoic acid. In Streptococcus pneumoniae – Molecular biology and mechanism of disease. Edited by: Tomasz A. Larchmont, NY: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc; 2000:155–177. 10538 43. Denapaite D, Brückner R, Hakenbeck R, Vollmer W: Biosynthesis of teichoic acids in Streptococcus pneumoniae and closely related species: lessons from genomes. Microb Drug Resist 2012, 18:344–358.PubMedCrossRef 44. Hakenbeck R, Madhour A, Denapaite D, Brückner R: Versatility of choline metabolism and choline binding proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae and commensal JPH203 in vitro streptococci. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2009, 33:572–586.PubMedCrossRef 45. Lacks S, Hotchkiss RD: A study of the genetic

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Complete induction medium contained 0 2% glucose, antibiotics, an

Complete induction medium contained 0.2% glucose, antibiotics, and 200 uM acetosyringone and was buffered to pH 5.3 with MES. GANT61 chemical structure bacteria

were collected by centrifugation and resuspended in induction medium to an optical density at 600 nm of 1.5 (corresponding to roughly 1.5 × 109 bacteria/ml). Histoplasma WU15 yeast were harvested Blebbistatin datasheet from solid HMM + uracil medium seeded 3 days earlier with 4 × 105 yeast/cm2. Yeast were collected by flooding plates with 5 mls HMM medium and scraping with a sterile spreader. Yeast were collected by centrifugation (1000 × g) and resuspended in induction medium at a density of 5 × 108 yeast/ml as determined by hemacytometer counts. For co-cultivation, 1.5 × 108 Agrobacterium cells were mixed with 5 × 107 Histoplasma yeast in a total volume of 400 ul and spread on Whatman #5 filter paper placed on top of solid induction medium supplemented with 0.7 mM cystine and 100 ug/ml uracil. Plates were incubated for 48 hrs at 25°C after which filters were transferred to selection medium (HMM + uracil + hygromycin + 200 uM cefotaxime) PARP inhibitor and incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2/95% air until Histoplasma transformants became visible (10-14 days). Six cm diameter plates were used so that roughly 50-100 transformants were obtained per plate. PCR-based screening of T-DNA insertion mutants Hygromycin-resistant transformants of Histoplasma were collected by flooding plates with HMM and

suspending cells with a sterile spreader. Suspensions

from individual plates were combined to obtain pools representing 100-200 independent transformant colonies. Yeast suspensions were diluted 1:10 into 10 mls HMM + uracil and grown for 24-48 hours. Two milliliters SDHB of culture were collected for nucleic acid isolation and the remaining culture frozen in 1 ml aliquots for later recovery of yeast. To purify Histoplasma nucleic acid for PCR, cells were collected by centrifugation (2000 × g) and nucleic acids released by mechanical disruption of yeast in the presence of detergents and organic solvent [45]. 250 ul of lysis buffer (20 mM Tris pH 8.0, 200 mM NaCl, 2 mM EDTA, 2% SDS, 4% Triton X-100) and 250 ul of phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1) were added to cells and nucleic acids released by bead beating cells with 0.5 mm-diameter acid-washed glass beads. Phases were separated by centrifugation (5 minutes at 14,000 × g) and the aqueous phase transferred to new tubes. Nucleic acids were recovered by precipitation of the aqueous phase with 2.5 volumes of ethanol. As no efforts were taken to remove RNA co-purifying with the DNA, total nucleic acids were quantified by spectrophotometric readings at 260 nm Screening of pools was done by two sequential PCR steps. Primers used are listed in Table 2. For the primary PCR, 50 ng of total nucleic acid was used as template in a 25 ul reaction with either a left border (e.g., LB6) or right border primer (e.g.

“Background Creatine is a glycine-arginine metabolite synt

“Background Creatine is a glycine-arginine metabolite synthesized in the liver, pancreas, and kidneys and is naturally stored by skeletal and cardiac muscles as an

energy supplier in the phosphocreatine form [1]. Muscle phosphocreatine plays a key role in anaerobic ATP production in muscles via the highly exergonic reaction catalyzed by creatine kinase. Thus, creatine monohydrate has become an increasingly popular dietary supplement, particularly for improvement of explosive strength performances [2, 3]. Recent findings have also proposed that creatine supplementation could efficiently restrain oxidative processes in vitro[4, 5]. At least two antioxidant mechanisms are currently selleck chemicals llc suggested for creatine: (i) direct scavenging of hydroxyl (HO·) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ·) radicals [6–8] by the creatine N-methylguanidino moiety; and (ii) lasting use of anaerobic AR-13324 datasheet energy-supplying pathways

because of accumulated creatine and preserved glycogen in skeletal muscles [9–11]. A plethora of data has revealed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are overproduced during and after anaerobic/resistance exercise, but from cellular sources other than mitochondria [12, 13]. Induced by an apparent ischemia-reperfusion process during intense contractile selleckchem activity of the resistance exercise, accumulating concentrations of AMP in exhausting muscle fibers activate the capillary enzyme xanthine oxidase – belonging to the purine catabolic pathway – which catalyzes the conversion of hypoxanthine into uric acid with concomitant

overproduction of superoxide radicals (O2 ·-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) [14]. In turn, O2 ·- and H2O2 are closely related to the production of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical (HO·) by iron-catalyzed reactions (Eqs. 1 and 2) that harmfully initiate PIK3C2G oxidizing processes in cells, such as lipoperoxidation [15]. (1) (2) Although some information linking iron metabolism and oxidative stress in exercise/sports is currently available, data reporting changes in iron homeostasis of plasma during/after one single bout of exercise compared to antioxidant responses are still scarce. Sources of iron overload in plasma during/after exercise are also unclear. Noteworthy, many authors have reported evidence of a “sport anemia” syndrome in athletes and experimental animals – especially in females – as a result of chronic iron deficiency imposed by prolonged training periods [16, 17]. Thus, based on iron-redox chemistry, progressive ROS overproduction could be triggered by iron overload in plasma and extracellular fluids during/after anaerobic exercise [18, 19]. Together, these redox changes have been increasingly associated to lower athletic performance, early fatigue, inflammatory processes, and higher risks of post-exercise injuries [20–22].

for the 4-13%, B subtilis et rel for the 0 6-2 5%, Fusobacteriu

for the 4-13%, B. subtilis et rel. for the 0.6-2.5%, Fusobacterium for the 1.2-4.4%, and Cyanobacterium for 0.6-4.5%. As expected, opportunistic pathogens showed together the lowest relative IF contribution in all the subjects under study (from 5 to 10%). Figure 3 Phylogenetic fingerprints. Cluster analysis of the phylogenetic fingerprint of 16 faecal samples from 8 young adults. Response of each of the HTF-Microbi.Array probes for what concerns

presence/absence of the target group is showed: positive response in red (P < 0.01), negative responses in blue (P > 0.01). Gary lines below the samples indicate adjacent replicated LDR of the same sample. Figure 4 IF relative contribution. For each sample the entire HTF-Microbi.Array probe set was click here considered and their relative IF contribution was calculated as

percentage of the total IF. Wnt inhibitor Sub-probes were excluded and for each subject data from two separate LDR-universal array experiments were taken Syk inhibitor onto consideration. The averaged IF from both the LDR-Universal Array experiments was considered. The principal intestinal groups of major mutualistic symbionts are indicated: Bacteroides/Prevotella (B/P) blue, Clostridium cluster IV (Cl.IV) green, Clostridium cluster IX (Cl.IX) brown, Clostridium cluster XIVa (Cl.XIVa) dark brown. Lactobacillus, B. clausii, B. subtilis, Fusobacterium and Cyanobacteria are grouped as minor mutualistic symbionts (minor) indicated in yellow. second Proteus, Yersinia and E. faecalis are grouped as opportunistic pathogens (opp) in red. Discussion In these last years, 16S rRNA microarrays emerged as a sensitive and efficient way to screen complex bacterial communities. Here we describe and validate

the HTF-Microbi.Array, a new phylogenetic DNA microarray designed for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbial community. The HTF-Microbi.Array is based on the LDR-UA approach, which is a fast and sensitive tool for the characterization of complex microbial communities with high sensitivity and specificity [25, 26]. The use of this molecular technique allows overcoming the major limitations of DNA microarrays whose discriminative power is based on hybridization. In fact, a) optimization of the hybridization conditions for each probe set is not required; b) problems due to the secondary structures of the target DNA are minimized, c) steric hindrances of differentially sized nucleic acid hybrids formed on the array after the hybridization are decreased [29]. The final probe set of the HTF-Microbi.Array allows a high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota, with a good coverage of the major and minor components, as well as some of the most important pathogens and opportunistic bacteria [30]. The LDR probes were designed by choosing DS oligonucleotides whose 3′end allowed the perfect discrimination of the target species from the non-target ones on the basis of our 16S rRNA sequence database.

In this study, we did not elucidate the molecular mechanisms by w

In this study, we did not elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which CXCR7 regulated the invasion of HCC cells. Another recent study suggests that signaling pathways mediated by CXCR7 are independent of those triggered through CXCR4 [30]. Therefore, it is reasonable to speculate that CXCR7 may exert effects on other

signaling. Also, the different biological effects elicited by CXCR7 may depend on cell type. Thus, further studies elucidating roles of CXCR7 in invasion and signaling cascades activated by CXCL12/CXCR7 axis are required. Tumor cells interact with ECM components and basement membranes, an essential initial event during the process of invasion. It also has been reported that expression of CXCR7 can regulate PP2 adhesion of tumor cells to endothelial cells [19, 24]. Our IACS-10759 concentration results demonstrated that CXCL12 could induce adhesion of SMMC-7721 cells to FN and LN. The enhanced cell-matrix adhesion may contribute to metastasis of tumor cells. In addition, we also found that RNAi-mediated

down-regulation of CXCR7 significantly inhibited CXCL12 induced adhesion of SMMC-7721 cells to LN or FN. Therefore, these findings clearly indicate that CXCR7 participate in CXCL12 induced cell-matrix adhesion. Tumor metastasis is a multistep process that involves the coordinated events of invasion, adhesion, proteolysis and migration. The decreased adhesive ability of HCC cells could lead to inhibition of the invasion of SMMC-7721. Cancer cells check details depend on angiogenesis to survive and proliferate [31]. We observed that HCC cells could induce in vitro Paclitaxel tube formation, which could promote tumor growth. Although CXCL12 induced VEGF secretion has been reported in various cells, such as lymphohematopoietic cells and prostate cancer cells [32, 33], CXCL12 induced VEGF production in HCC cells has not been

previously studied. In the current study, we found that CXCL12/CXCR7 interaction promoted secretion of VEGF, a potent survival factor for endothelial cells, and one of the most prominent angiogenic factors produced by various tumor cells. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that knockdown of CXCR7 inhibits secretion of VEGF and tube formation, suggesting that CXCR7 may be involved in the regulation of angiogenesis in HCC. Initial evidence has indicated that expression levels of CXCR7 are frequently high in tumor-associated endothelial cells and activated endothelial cells, but not in normal endothelial cells [4, 19]. Our results also confirm that CXCR7 expresses in HUVECs with low levels. To date, very little is known in regard to the regulation of CXCR7 expression in cancer cells and normal cells. In this study, we demonstrated that VEGF stimulation enhanced CXCR7 mRNA and protein levels not only in HCC cell lines but also in HUVECs. A large quantity of VEGF is produced from tumor microenvironment, which could result in enhanced expression of CXCR7 in tumor-associated blood vessels.

As shown in Figure 5C, the electrochemical response increases wit

As shown in Figure 5C, the electrochemical response increases with increasing temperature from 25°C to 35°C and then decreases as the temperature further increased. Lazertinib concentration The sharp decrease of the

response was due to the denaturation of GOD at high temperatures. Although the response of the biosensor was greatest at 35°C, for practical reasons, it was suggested that room temperature be used to simplify the experimental procedure and prolong the useful lifetime of the biosensor given that most enzymes can be easily denatured at high temperature. Amperometric sensing of glucose In this work, PtAuNP/ss-DNA/GR nanocomposites were used to accelerate electron transfer between the electro-active sites embedded in GOD and the modified electrode. To investigate the effect of PtAuNP/ss-DNA/GR on the response current, as in Figure 6, we NCT-501 research buy compared the amperometric responses of GOD/ss-DNA/GR (curve a), GOD/PtNP/ss-DNA/GR (curve b), and GOD/AuNP/ss-DNA/GR (curve c) modified electrodes for the successive addition of 0.1 mM glucose at an applied potential of -0.2 V. It can be seen from Figure 6 that the amperometric responses of GOD/PtAuNP/ss-DNA/GR (curve d) modified electrode were much larger than those of the GOD/ss-DNA/GR (curve a), GOD/PtNP/ss-DNA/GR (curve b), and GOD/AuNP/ss-DNA/GR (curve c) modified electrodes. The reason might be due to the extra active surface area provided by

PtAuNP/ss-DNA/GR composites and the synergistic action of PtAuNPs and GR. The GOD/PtAuNP/ss-DNA/GR modified electrode GM6001 in vitro exhibited a linear response in the concentration range before of 1.0 to 1,800 μM, with a correlation coefficient of 0.997. It was much wider than that of the ZnO/MWCNT/GOD electrode (6.67 to 1,290 μM) [39], Ag [email protected]/Nafion/GOD electrode (50 to 1,100 μM) [40], and GR quantum dot/GOD electrode (5 to 1,270 μM) [30]. The detection limit was estimated to be 0.3 μM (based on S/N = 3) for glucose, which was lower than 20 μM for MWCNT-GOD [41], 20 μM

for GR-chitosan/GOD [42], and 0.5 μM for polyaniline/CNT/Pt/GOD [43]. Figure 6 Amperometric responses of modified electrodes to additions of 0.1 mM glucose in 10-mL PBS at -0.2 V. GOD/ss-DNA/GR (curve a), GOD/PtNP/ss-DNA/GR (curve b), GOD/AuNP/ss-DNA/GR (curve c), and GOD/PtAuNP/ss-DNA/GR (curve d) modified electrodes. Left inset is the calibration curve of the biosensor. Selectivity, reproducibility, and stability of the biosensor In the present work, we studied the interference effect of ascorbic acid (1.0 mM), dopamine (1.0 mM), and uric acid (1.0 mM) on the amperometric response of 1 mM glucose, and the response is shown in Table 1. As shown, the biosensor showed excellent selectivity to glucose in the presence of ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid. The good selectivity of this biosensor is largely attributed to the low working potential (-0.2 V).

Env Microbiol 2005, 7:969–980 CrossRef 36 Aguilera-Arreola MG, H

Env Microbiol 2005, 7:969–980.CrossRef 36. Aguilera-Arreola MG, Hernández-Rodríguez C, Zúñiga G, Figueras MJ, Garduño RA, Castro-Escarpulli G: Virulence potential and genetic diversity of buy AZD3965 Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas veronii, and Aeromonas hydrophila clinical isolates from Mexico and Spain: a comparative BVD-523 cell line study. Can J Microbiol 2007, 53:877–887.PubMedCrossRef

37. Sneath PHA: Evidence from Aeromonas for genetic crossing-over in ribosomal sequences. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1993, 43:626–629.PubMedCrossRef 38. Morandi A, Zhaxybayeva O, Gogarten JP, Graf J: Evolutionary and diagnostic implications of intragenomic heterogeneity in the 16 S rRNA gene in Aeromonas strains. J Bacteriol 2005, 187:6561–6564.PubMedCrossRef 39. Umelo E, Trust TJ: Physical map of the chromosome of Aeromonas salmonicida and genomic comparisons between Aeromonas strains. Microbiol 1998,144(8):2141–2149.CrossRef

40. Georgiades K, Raoult D: Defining pathogenic bacterial species in the genomic era. Front Microbiol 2010, 1:151.PubMed 41. Martinez-Murcia AJ, Benlloch S, Collins MD: Phylogenetic interrelationships of members of the genera Aeromonas and Plesiomonas as determined by 16 S ribosomal DNA sequencing: Lack of congruence with results of DNA-DNA hybridizations. Int J Syst Bacteriol 3-deazaneplanocin A mouse 1992, 42:412–421.PubMedCrossRef 42. Huys G, Kämpfer P, Swings J: New DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic data on the species Aeromonas ichthiosmia and Aeromonas allosaccharophila: A. ichthiosmia Schubert et al. 1990 is a later synonym of A. veronii Hickman-Brenner et al. 1987. Syst Appl Microbiol 2001, 24:177–182.PubMedCrossRef 43. Nhung PH, Hata H, Ohkusu K, Noda M, Shah MM, Goto K, Ezaki T: Use of the novel phylogenetic Ponatinib manufacturer marker dnaJ and DNA-DNA hybridization to clarify interrelationships within the genus Aeromonas. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2007, 57:1232–1237.PubMedCrossRef 44. Saavedra MJ, Perea V, Fontes MC, Martins C, Martínez-Murcia A: Phylogenetic identification of Aeromonas strains isolated from carcasses of

pig as new members of the species Aeromonas allosaccharophila. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2007, 91:159–167.PubMedCrossRef 45. Miñana-Galbis D, Urbizu-Serrano A, Farfán M, Fusté MC, Lorén JG: Phylogenetic analysis and identification of Aeromonas species based on sequencing of the cpn60 universal target. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2009, 59:1976–1983.PubMedCrossRef 46. Vial L, Chapalain A, Groleau M, Déziel E: The various lifestyles of the Burkholderia cepacia complex species: a tribute to adaptation. Env Microbiol 2011, 13:1–12.CrossRef 47. Monfort P, Baleux B: Dynamics of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae in a sewage treatment pond. Appl Env Microbiol 1990, 56:1999–2006. 48. Goñi-Urriza M, Capdepuy M, Arpin C, Raymond N, Caumette P, Quentin C: Impact of an urban effluent on antibiotic resistance of riverine Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp. Appl Env Microbiol 2000, 66:125–132.CrossRef 49.

Type species Caryosporella rhizophorae Kohlm , Proc Indian Acad

Type species Caryosporella rhizophorae Kohlm., Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Pl. Sci. 94: 356 (1985). (Fig. 20) Fig. 20 Caryosporella rhizophoriae (from NY. Herb. J. Kohlmeyer No. 4532a, holotype). a Gregarious ascomata on host surface. b Section of an ascoma. c, d Section of partial peridium at sides (c) and base (d). Note the three layers. e Asci with long peduncles in pseudoparaphyses. f, g Ascospores. Note the “net”-like ridged ornamentation of spore surface and hyaline germ pores. Scale bars: a = 1 mm, b = 200 μm, c–e = 100 μm,

f, g = 10 μm Ascomata 0.8–1.1 mm high × 0.9–1.2 mm diam., densely BTK inhibitor clinical trial scattered or gregarious, superficial with a ARRY-438162 ic50 flattened base, not easily removed from the host surface, subglobose, black, short papillate, ostiolate, periphysate, carbonaceous (Fig. 20a and b). Peridium 120–150 μm thick at sides, up to 200 μm thick at the apex, thinner at the base, 3-layered, outer layer composed of golden-yellow, very thick-walled cells of textura epidermoidea, mixed with subglobose, large cells near the surface, cells 7–15 μm diam., middle layer composed of deep brown, very thick-walled cells of textura epidermoidea, inner layer composed of hyaline, thin-walled cells of textura prismatica, up to 50 × 5 μm diam., merging with pseudoparaphyses (Fig. 20b, c and d). Hamathecium of dense, long trabeculate SB202190 in vivo pseudoparaphyses, 1.5-2 μm wide, anastomosing and branching above the asci. Asci

225–250(−275) × 14–17 μm (\( \barx = 137 \times 16.3\mu m \), n = 10), 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate,

cylindrical, with a long, narrowed, pedicel which is up to 75 μm long, apical characters not observed (Fig. 20e). Ascospores 25–28(−30) × 9–13 μm L-gulonolactone oxidase (\( \barx = 26.8 \times 11\mu m \), n = 10), uniseriate to partially overlapping, ellipsoidal to broadly fusoid with narrow hyaline rounded ends, deep reddish brown, thick-walled, 1-septate with hyaline germ pore at each end, slightly constricted at the septum, verruculose, sometimes with “net”-like ridged ornamentations (Fig. 20f and g). Anamorph: suspected spermatia (Kohlmeyer 1985). Material examined: BELIZE, Twin Cays, tip of prop root of Rhizophora mangle, 18 Mar. 1984, J. Kohlmeyer (NY. Herb. J. Kohlmeyer No. 4532a, holotype). Notes Morphology Caryosporella was formally established by Kohlmeyer (1985) based on the obligate marine fungus, C. rhizophorae, which is characterized by its superficial ascomata, 3-layered peridium, filliform trabeculate pseudoparaphyses, and brown, 1-septate ascospores. Caryosporella was originally assigned to Massariaceae despite several major differences, such as the superficial ascomata, reddish brown ascospores (Kohlmeyer 1985). Subsequently, Caryosporella was assigned to Melanommataceae (Eriksson 2006; Lumbsch and Huhndorf 2007). Phylogenetic study Suetrong et al. (2009) showed that a single isolate of Caryosporella rhizophorae does not reside in Pleosporales, but is related to Lineolata rhizophorae (Kohlm. & E.

In order to obtain clear and reproducible PFGE banding patterns u

In order to check details obtain clear and reproducible PFGE banding patterns using Cfr9I as restriction enzyme, the Harmony PFGE protocol had to be adjusted. This resulted in the following protocol: From each isolate, 100 μl bacterial suspension of an overnight Trypton Soy Broth (TSB) culture, was embedded in a plug mold

(Biorad) with 1.2% low-melting-point agarose (Seakem gold®, Biorad). Then, 500 μl lysostaphine (100 μg/ml, Sigma) was added and incubated for 6 h at 37°C. Subsequently, the plugs were incubated overnight at 55°C with 500 μl Proteinase K (50 μg/ml, Merck). The plugs were then washed, 6 to 10 times in a shaking incubator for 30 min. in 1 × Tris-EDTA buffer (Fluka, pH 7) at 50°C in order to remove cell debris. Finally, the plugs were equilibrated in 1 × Cfr9I buffer (Fermentas, Ontario, Canada) for 15 min. at room temperature prior to digestion and then submerged in QNZ concentration 200 μl of 1 × Cfr9I reaction buffer containing 40 U of Cfr9I restriction enzyme (Fermentas, Ontario, Canada). The reaction tubes were incubated overnight at 37°C in a shaking incubator. Further steps were carried out according to

the Harmony protocol [26]. Briefly, a 1% agarose gel was poured into a gel tray and positioned in a contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) (Biorad) tank and submerged in 1,700 ml of 0.5 × Tris-Borate-EDTA (TBE). The total run time was 22 h at 14°C with an initial pulse time of 5 s, a final pulse time of 50 s and a voltage of 6 V/cm or 200 V. Gels were stained in PI3K inhibitor ethidium bromide (1 μg/ml, Invitrogen) and viewed

and photographed with UV transillumination. Digital images were analyzed using Bionumerics software, version 5.1. If a difference in PFGE pattern was observed, a new pulsed field type was assigned. The definition of a PFGE cluster was based on a similarity cutoff of 80% [28] (Dice coefficient, represented by UPGMA, 0.5% optimization and 1.0% tolerance). Different PFGE clusters were given in alphabetical order. Every band difference within PRKACG a PFGE cluster resulted in adding a numerical order to the pulsed field cluster. Results Optimization and validation of the Cfr9I PFGE method In the initial experiments the SmaI restriction enzyme was replaced by Cfr9I and exactly the same conditions were used as in the original PFGE protocol. This led to uninformative PFGE patterns consisting mainly of smears and faint bands obtained through partial digestion of the genomic DNA. A higher lysostaphine concentration (100 μg/ml), longer incubation steps for lysis (6 h), proteinase K and digestion overnight and hot washes at 50°C – instead of washes at room temperature – produced clear and reproducible banding profiles. After optimizing the PFGE method with Cfr9I, high quality banding patterns from all selected (n = 124) previously non-typeable ST398 MRSA isolates were obtained.