Conclusion: In conclusion, MSG induced mechanica


Conclusion: In conclusion, MSG induced mechanical sensitization in masseter muscle and adverse effects such

as headache and short-lasting TPCA-1 mouse blood pressure elevation for which tolerance did not develop over 5 days of MSG intake.”
“Background: Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours. It is hypothesized that host attractiveness and selection of An. gambiae is affected by the species composition, density, and metabolic activity of the skin microbiota. A study is presented in which the production and constituency of volatile organic compounds

(VOCs) by human skin microbiota is examined and the behavioural responses of An. gambiae to VOCs from skin microbiota are investigated.

Methods: Blood agar plates incubated with skin microbiota from human feet or with a reference strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis were tested for their attractiveness to An. gambiae in olfactometer bioassays and indoor trapping experiments. Entrained air collected from blood agar plates incubated with natural skin microbiota or with S. epidermidis were analysed using GC-MS. A synthetic blend of the compounds identified was tested for its attractiveness to An. gambiae. Behavioural PD98059 data were analysed by a chi(2)-test and GLM. GC-MS results were analysed by fitting an exponential regression line to test the effect of the concentration of bacteria.

Results: More An. gambiae were caught with blood agar plates

incubated with skin bacteria than with sterile blood agar plates, with a significant effect of incubation time and dilution of the skin microbiota. When bacteria from the feet of four other volunteers were tested, similar effects were found. BAY 63-2521 mw Fourteen putative attractants were found in the headspace of the skin bacteria. A synthetic blend of 10 of these was attractive to An. gambiae.

Conclusions: The discovery that volatiles produced by human skin microorganisms in vitro mediate An. gambiae host-seeking behaviour creates new opportunities for the development of odour-baited trapping systems. Additionally, identification of bacterial volatiles provides a new method to develop synthetic blends, attractive to An. gambiae and possibly other anthropophilic disease vectors.”
“Sunlight irradiation reaction of Ru(3)(CO)(12) with a Schiff base, bis (acetyl acetone) ethylene diimine, acacenH(2), in benzene results in the formation of an octahedral complex [Ru(CO)(2)(acacen)] with a tetradentate ligand. The complex was structurally confirmed using elemental analysis, infrared, mass spectrometry, (1)HNMR, UV-vis absorption spectra, and magnetic measurements.

(C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd “
“This paper reports inc

(C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“This paper reports incredibly large and rapid evolution of elastic constants in deposited copper and silver films observed by the resonant-ultrasound spectroscopy. The evolution begins just after stopping the deposition with the temperature dependent recovery rate. To explain the mechanism, we propose a model, where the elastic constants

at grain boundary regions increase by 67% at least. Diffusion of atoms along the grain boundary region is a possible reason, and we confirm that the activation energy is much smaller than that for grain-boundary diffusion in bulk materials. These results are explained by drastic structure change at grain boundaries, find more being similar to phase transition from liquid into solid phase. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3407540]“
“As limited data among

German women exist about HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, we report the prevalence of these genital infections and general baseline demographics of the young German women enrolled in the phase III trials of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine.

German females (n = 437; 9-23 years) were recruited among 3 international phase 3 studies of an HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. Autophagy high throughput screening We present baseline characteristics, prevalence of HPV-6/11/16/18 and, for women aged 16-23, abnormal cervical cytology and sexually transmitted diseases.

Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae prevalence was 5 and 0.3%, respectively. Approximately 17% of participants had HPV-6, 11, 16, or 18 DNA or antibodies. All subjects < 17 years were na < ve to the four vaccine types.

The results of the vaccine trials have demonstrated that it is worth administering prophylactic HPV vaccines before sexual debut; however, none of these sexually

active German women were positive to all four types and most were positive to only one type. Thus, all women had the potential to benefit from vaccination with a quadrivalent HPV vaccine.”
“Questions under study: In recent years, distress see more and alexithymia have been recognised as psychosocial factors related to both somatic and psychosomatic diseases. In this study distress and alexithymia and their associations with physical parameters were investigated in lung recipients.

Methods: The study, which included 76 patients after a lung transplant, measured psychological distress (Symptom Checklist, SCL-K-9) and alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20). Physical health was assessed by means of lung function (FEV(1)), exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), and comorbidity (CCI) at the time of the questionnaire survey. A bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) was assessed at the time of the questionnaire survey and one year later.

Those over two years of age received a 5 0-French, 8-cm triple lu

Those over two years of age received a 5.0-French, 8-cm triple lumen central line [Cook Medical polyurethane, no antibiotic or heparin Go 6983 coating]. A retrospective review of charts, hospital reports, echocardiographic studies, and cardiac catheterization studies was performed.


combined population of infants <1year of age and patients <5years of age with functional univentricular hearts totaled 235 patients who underwent 261 cardiac surgical operations. In this cohort of 261 cases, 171 size 4.0 or 5.0-French upper body central lines were inserted. A total of 158 right internal jugular vein catheters were placed. Two left internal jugular lines, two left subclavian lines, and nine right subclavian lines were placed in this population after failure to obtain right internal jugular access. Due to the small sample size (N=13), the central lines not placed in the right internal jugular

vein were excluded from further review. Two cases with right internal jugular venous lines were excluded due to death (without known stenosis or thrombosis) with the line in place. Twenty-three size 4.0- or 5.0-French right BGJ398 inhibitor internal jugular central venous lines were placed in patients over one year of age (range 1.1-4.3years) having modified Glenn- or Fontan-type surgery. The central lines were removed with a median of 1.4days after insertion (range 0.7-8.2days) for these older children, compared

with a median of 4.2days of age (range 0.3-19.3days) for the 133 children <1year of age. Retrospective chart review of nursing notes, progress notes, cardiology notes, discharge summaries, echocardiographic reports, and cardiac catheterization reports for all patients who received an upper body central venous line (internal jugular or subclavian) LBH589 chemical structure showed no definitive diagnosis of an upper body venous stenosis or thrombosis related to the central venous line. A further targeted review of echocardiographic and cardiac catheterization studies for univentricular cardiac patients failed to show stenosis or thrombosis of a vessel associated with upper body central line placement.

ConclusionsThis study describes one institution’s experience with routine upper body central venous catheter placement for neonatal and infant cardiac surgery as well as univentricular cardiac palliation (Glenn and Fontan procedures) with minimal risk of clinically significant catheter-associated vessel thrombosis or stenosis. No upper body central venous stenosis or thrombosis was detected in association with perioperative catheter placement in the upper body central venous system, primarily the right internal jugular vein in 156 cases. Right internal jugular central line placement for infant cardiac surgery can be utilized with a low risk of direct venous thrombosis or stenosis.

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third leading cause of cancer mor

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third leading cause of cancer mortality and its rates have recently been increasing in central and northern Europe and USA. To quantify the association between statin use and risk for HCC, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies. We conducted a MEDLINE search for observational studies reporting the association between exposure to statins and

risk for incident liver cancer until March 2012. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Moreover, between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed using adequate statistical tests. Five observational studies (two case-control and three cohort studies) based on 2574 cases of Z-DEVD-FMK HCC were included. Statin treatment, compared with no treatment, was inversely related to HCC (summary RR=0.58; 95% CI 0.46-0.74). Between-study heterogeneity was significant (P <0.001) and numerically relevant (I-2 = 65%). When only longest

statin use was considered, the RR was 0.66 (95% CI 0.55-0.80). check details Influence analysis on the overall estimate showed that heterogeneity was largely because of one study; when omitting it, the I 2 dropped to 27% (P = 0.240), whereas the summary RR was only marginally modified (RR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.44-0.62). There was no evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests a favorable effect of statins on HCC, in the absence, however, of a duration-risk relationship. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 22:229-234 (C) 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams www.sellecn.cn/products/hmpl-504-azd6094-volitinib.html & Wilkins.”
“Background: Renal sympathetic innervation plays

an important role in the control of renal hemodynamics and may therefore contribute to the pathophysiology of many disease states affecting the kidney. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the role of the renal sympathetic nervous system in the early deteriorations of renal hemodynamics and structure in rats with pathophysiological states of renal impairment.

Methods: Anesthetized Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with cisplatin-induced acute renal failure (ARF) or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) were subjected to a renal hemodynamic study 7 days after cisplatin and STZ administration. During the acute study, renal nerves were electrically stimulated, and responses in renal blood flow (RBF) and renal vascular resistance (RVR) were recorded in the presence and absence of renal denervation. Post mortem kidney collection was performed for histopathological assessment.

Results: In innervated ARF or DM rats, renal nerve stimulation produced significantly lower (all p<0.05, vs. innervated control) renal vasoconstrictor responses. These responses were markedly abolished when renal denervation was performed (all p<0.05); however, they appeared significantly higher compared with denervated controls (all p<0.05).

Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic an

Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses

and chemical reactions.”
“OBJECTIVE: To estimate the www.selleckchem.com/products/wnt-c59-c59.html occurrence of postoperative urinary retention after traditional laparoscopic and robotic hysterectomy.

METHODS: We performed a chart review of all patients who underwent total or supracervical hysterectomy using a laparoscopic (n = 253) or robotic approach (n = 281) from March 2001 until June 2010 for benign indications at the division for minimally invasive surgery. Urinary retention was defined as the inability to spontaneously void or as incomplete voiding requiring either self-catheterization or Foley catheter Tariquidar in vivo replacement in the first postoperative


RESULTS: Urinary retention occurred in 7.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.2-9.8%) of women and was more than twice as common among women who underwent robotic hysterectomy compared with laparoscopic hysterectomy (10.3%, 95% CI 7.0-14.5% compared with 4.0%, 95% CI 1.9-7.1%, P = .005). No statistically significant differences in those with and without urinary retention were seen in age, body mass index, smoking status, number of prior cesarean deliveries, operative time, presence of severe adhesions, or findings of endometriosis. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, only the robotic approach relative to traditional laparoscopic approach was found to be significantly associated with urinary retention (odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.6). Postoperative urinary retention was associated with a higher incidence of lower urinary tract infection,

occurring in 15.4% (95% CI 5.9-30.5%) of cases compared with 4.0% (95% CI 2.5-6.2%) of those without urinary retention (P = .008).

CONCLUSION: Transient JAK 抑制剂 urinary retention is relatively more common after robotic hysterectomy when compared with laparoscopic hysterectomy. We postulate that more aggressive bladder dissection performed with robot assistance may be associated with an increased risk of urinary retention. (Obstet Gynecol 2012; 120: 581-6) DOI: http://10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182638c3a

“The volatile constituents of the essential oil of Valeriana alliariifolia Adams growing wild in Kurdistan, Iran were investigated by the GC and GC/MS techniques. Among the 26 compounds represented, 20 (96.3%) of them were identified as oil.

Xenografts may be induced by cells cultured in vitro or by the he

Xenografts may be induced by cells cultured in vitro or by the heterotransplantation of primary surgical specimens into immunosuppressed mice. The purpose of this review

is to integrate data from more than 30 years of heterotransplantation research in the study of benign hyperplasia of the prostate. Heterotransplantation has provided data regarding the histopathology, morphology, tissue markers, androgen receptor expression, tissue kinetics, take rate and tissue vasculature for this prostate disease. There are advantages, as well as limitations, that have been identified for human prostate disease Selisistat concentration heterotransplants versus xenotransplantation of cultured cells. Overall, heterotransplanted

tissue is better at retaining tissue morphology, pathology, secretory activity, expression of tissue markers and human vasculature of the patient’s original specimen. Furthermore, heterotransplanted tissue preserves the three-dimensional tissular architecture of the prostate to maintain critical stromal-epithelial cell interactions.”
“BACKGROUND: The process of brain death can induce acute lung injury in donors and aggravate ischemia-reperfusion injury in grafts. Carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin (BV) have been shown to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury. We therefore examined if the administration of both CO and BV provide enhanced cytoprotection against lung graft injury from brain-dead (BD) rat donors.

METHODS: Brain death was induced in LY2090314 in vitro all donors, after which they were observed for 1.5 hours and then underwent lung transplantation. The recipients were ventilated with 40% oxygen (control group), ventilated with 250 ppm CO in 40% oxygen (CO group), treated with BV (35 mg/kg) intraperitoneally

(BV group), or treated with CO and BV conjointly (COBV group) before transplantation (n = 8 each group). The recipients were sacrificed 2 hours after lung transplantation by exsanguination. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-8 and selleckchem tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

RESULTS: CO and/or BV treatment attenuated partial pressure of arterial oxygen (Pao(2))/fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio(2)) aggravation in the recipients after reperfusion, reduced the wet weight/dry weight ratio, decreased the lung injury score, inhibited the activity of myeloperoxidase in grafts, and decreased serum levels of IL-8 and TNF-alpha compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The COBV group had significantly decreased malonaldehyde levels and increased superoxide dismutase levels in lung grafts compared with the CO group (p <0.05). The static pressure-volume curve of the lungs was ameliorated in the CO group, BV group, and COBV group compared with the control group (p <0.05).

(c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “

(c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND The alexandrite laser selectively targets melanin and hemoglobin. We used the alexandrite laser with variable pulse widths to treat facial telangiectasia.

METHODS Nineteen patients were enrolled in this study, which consisted of two parts: a series of test spots over a range of pulse durations (3-80ms) and treatment over a larger area based ABT-263 on the pulse width-specific outcomes from the test spots. The final follow-up visit was 12 weeks after irradiation.

RESULTS The 40-ms pulse width achieved the optimal balance of pain tolerance, epidermal tolerance, and vessel

reduction. Mean fluence was 88 J/cm(2), with a 6-mm spot. Overall, a 48% reduction in vessels was noted after one treatment. Side effects were minimal.

CONCLUSIONS In fair-skinned patients with large telangiectasia, the alexandrite laser is a good option for vessel reduction.”
“This study aims to assess the link between fluoride content in groundwater and its impact on dental health in rural communities of the Ethiopian Rift. A total of 148 water samples were collected from two drainage basins within the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). In the Ziway-Shala basin in particular, SNS-032 molecular weight wells had high fluoride levels (mean: 9.4 +/- 10.5 mg/L: range: 1.1 10 68 mg/L). with 48 of 50 exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline limit of 1.5 mg/L. Total average daily intake of fluoride

from drinking groundwater (calculated per weight unit) was also found to be six times higher than the No-Observed-Adverse-Effects-Level (NOAEL) value of 0.06 mg/kg/day. The highest fluoride levels were found in highly-alkaline (pH of 7 to 8.9) groundwater characterized by high salinity; high concentrations of sodium (Na+), bicarbonate (HCO3-), and silica (SiO2); and low concentrations of calcium

(Ca2+). A progressive Ca2+ decrease along the groundwater flow path is associated with an increase of fluoride in the groundwater. The groundwater quality problem is also coupled with the presence of other toxic elements, such as arsenic (As) and uranium (U). The health impact of fluoride was evaluated based on clinical examination of dental fluorosis (DF) among local residents using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (TFI). In total, 200 rural inhabitants selleck chemicals llc between the ages of 7 and 40 years old using water from 12 wells of fluoride range of 7.8-18 mg/L. were examined. Signs of OF (TF score of 1) were observed in all individuals. Most of the teeth (52%) recorded TF scores of 5 and 6, followed by TF scores of 3 and 4 (30%), and 8.4% had TF scores of 7 or higher. Sixty percent of the teeth exhibited loss of the outermost enamel. Within the range of fluoride contents, we did not find any correlation between fluoride content and DF. Finally, preliminary data suggest that milk intake has contributed to reducing the severity of OF.

Results In both cases, polyomavirus immunohistochemistry performe

Results In both cases, polyomavirus immunohistochemistry performed on the tumor specimens was strongly find more positive, and limited to the malignant

tissue. BKV DNA, viral protein 1, and large T antigen mRNA were detected in the tumor; however, no viral particles were seen on electron microscopy. Conclusion In one of the cases, BKV integration into the host genome was identified, leading to the truncation of the major viral capsid gene. This finding raises the concern that persisting BK viruria may be a risk factor for this aggressive form of bladder cancer. Further studies to determine screening and management strategies are required.”
“Docking studies of few substituted 5-benzyl-2, 4-thiazolidinedione moiety, which acts as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist was performed by using Glide v4.5. The docking studies reveal hydrogen bond formation to Thr241 with Gscore -7.22 and energy -62.2 kcal/mole. We found hydrogen bond formation of most of compounds with good Gscore and low energy as compared to the most active

“Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax (SBSP) is a very rare condition, mainly detected in patients with underlying pulmonary disease. This study reports a case of SBSP following chemotherapy learn more for metastatic testicular cancer.”
“Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the performance of the procalcitonin

(PCT) diagnostic test for identifying infectious complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, the Cochrane database, and reference lists of relevant articles, with no language restrictions, through December 2011. We selected original articles that reported diagnostic performance of PCT alone or compared with other biomarkers for identifying serious infections in HSCT recipients. We quantitatively evaluated test accuracy parameters with the use of forest plots, hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves, and bivariate random effect models. Results We found 6 qualifying studies (studying 1344 episodes of suspected infection with confirmed infectious episodes) from 3 countries. These 6 studies examined both Birinapant solubility dmso PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP) test performance. Bivariate pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratios, and negative likelihood ratios were 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.72), 0.72 (95% CI 0.65-0.79), 2.39 (95% CI 1.84- 3.09), and 0.47 (95% CI 0.39-0.57) for PCT, and 0.80 (95% CI 0.54-0.93), 0.73 (95% CI 0.56-0.86), 3.00 (95% CI 1.86-4.84), and 0.27 (95% CI 0.11-0.65) for CRP. In terms of area under the curve (AUC), CRP was superior to PCT in detecting infectious complications, with an AUC of 0.82 for CRP versus an AUC of 0.69 for PCT.

0007) Among positive responders, the extent of purified protein

0007). Among positive responders, the extent of purified protein derivative (PPD) triggered IFN-gamma release (P < 0.003) was sensitive to age. ESAT-6 triggered EFN-gamma release (day 7, P = 0.03) and the frequency of PPD-specific IFN-gamma(+)CD4(+) (P = 0.03) and IFN-gamma(+)CD8(+) cells (P = 0.04) were weakly dependent on age. By contrast, the extent of TST induration was insensitive to age (P > 0.05), and sex had no significant

impact on any phenotype measured (P > 0.05). The high proportion of positive responders in the 1-10 year age-group observed with long-term whole blood assays, but not with 3-day this website assays and TST, suggests that long-term whole blood assays may be confounded by bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination in this age group.

CONCLUSION: There is a significant impact of age, but not sex, on different assays of immune reactivity in this high TB transmission setting.”
“BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) are at greater risk for tuberculosis (TB), including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), compared

to the general population. The psychosocial impact of nosocomial TB on HCWs has received little attention in the literature.

METHODS: A retrospective medical record review from 1999 to 2003 found 15 HCWs who were treated for drug-resistant TB at a specialist hospital in South Africa. Five human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative doctors with no predisposing GSK621 factors for drug resistance are included in this case series. We collectively present their clinical case BMS-754807 clinical trial histories based on medical records from 2000 to 2005, and explore the long-term psychosocial impact of TB from interviews conducted in 2009.

RESULTS: Four doctors had primary MDR-TB and one had primary resistance to multiple first-line drugs. Time from symptom onset to commencement of effective treatment ranged from 8 to 39 weeks. Time for bacteriological

confirmation of drug-resistant TB ranged from 6 to 24 weeks. All were cured within 3 years of initial presentation. Content analysis of follow-up interviews revealed five main themes: 1) prolonged morbidity, 2) psychological impact, 3) poor infection control, 4) weak support structures and 5) attrition from the field.

CONCLUSION: Themes emergent from this case series encourage prioritisation of TB infection control education and practice to minimise HCW morbidity and prevent HCW attrition from high-burden resource-constrained settings.”
“Aim: To compare hepcidin and erythropoietin levels in the cord blood of neonates with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) to levels obtained from age-, body mass index- and gravidity-matched neonates with clear amniotic fluid. Methods: A cross-sectional controlled study was conducted in secondary and tertiary care centers.

More than 30 risk factors have been proposed, with age at repair,

More than 30 risk factors have been proposed, with age at repair, QRS duration, right ventricular enlargement, and left ventricular dysfunction considered the most predictive risk factors. Additionally, SCD has been studied in patients with atrial repair for transposition of the great arteries, left heart obstructive lesions, and to Citarinostat cost a limited extent, patients with univentricular physiology. This review discusses current risk factors for SCD in CHD and the limited positive predictive value of any individual factor. The emphasis is on contemporary patients

with CHD, who differ markedly from those who had repair of CHD decades earlier. This is characterized by complete repairs during the neonatal period, improved physiologic outcomes, and extended survival of patients with complex forms of CHD. Therefore, earlier data and conclusions may not be relevant to newer generations of patients with CHD. According to current perspectives, systemic ventricular dysfunction becomes a major risk factor beyond the age of 20 years. The first symptomatic arrhythmia may result in SCD, and defibrillators are increasingly implanted despite the lack of risk stratification criteria. The large number of potential risk factors and therapeutic options, in contrast to the low incidence of actual events,

results in a difficult clinical challenge in the assessment of the risk for selleck kinase inhibitor SCD in the individual patient with CHD.”
“Introduction and Objectives: Bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV) has been introduced as an alternative to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Promising short-term results, but inferior mid-term results compared to TURP have been reported following first-generation bipolar electrovaporization. Outcome data following second-generation BPV are still scarce. LOXO-101 clinical trial The aim of this investigation

was to evaluate the intra- and postoperative outcomes of contemporary BPV in a center with long-standing expertise on laser vaporization of the prostate. Methods: A consecutive series of 83 patients undergoing BPV in a tertiary referral center was prospectively evaluated. The investigated outcome parameters included the maximum flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual volume, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS)/quality of life (Qol), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. Follow-up investigations took place after 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare pre- and post-treatment parameters. Results: The median (range) preoperative prostate volume was 41mL (17-111mL). The preoperative IPSS, Qol, Qmax, and residual volume were 16 (2-35), 4 (0-6), 10.1mL/s (3-29.3mL/s), and 87mL (0-1000mL), respectively. One third of the patients were undergoing platelet aggregation inhibition (PAI). No intraoperative complications occurred. Postoperatively, 13 patients (15.7%) had to be recatheterized. Three patients (3.