Up to now, the origin of atomic-scale contrast in KPFM is still not fully understood, and there exists a strong controversy between several hypotheses. In the case of ionic crystals, an explanation based on short-range electrostatic forces due to the variations of the Madelung surface potential has been suggested, yet an induced polarization of the ions at the tip-surface interface due to the bias-voltage modulation applied in KPFM may be an alternative
contrast mechanism . In the case of semiconductors, some authors attribute atomic resolution in KPFM images to possible artifacts . Some authors suggest that the local contact potential difference (LCPD) variation on a semiconductor surface is caused by the formation of a local surface dipole, due to the charge transfer between different surface atoms or charge redistribution by
interaction with the AFM tip . On the other hand, there are mainly three kinds of KPFM modes: EPZ015938 cost frequency modulation (FM), amplitude modulation (AM) , and heterodyne AM-KPFM (HAM-KPFM) [11, 12]. FM-KPFM, which was proposed by Kitamura et al. , has been shown to have the advantage of high sensitivity to short-range interactions and therefore high spatial resolution Nutlin-3a supplier , and this is because the distance dependence of modulated electrostatic forces is proportional to 1/z 2. AM-KPFM, proposed by Kikukawa et al. , has demonstrated that its advantages are its high sensitivity to potential and its ability to reduce topographic artifacts
; however, it also has the disadvantage of both the weak distance dependence of modulated electrostatic forces which are proportional to 1/z, and a serious stray capacitance effect [11, 15]. As a result, the potential images we obtained using AM-KPFM are due to artifacts and not the real charge distribution. HAM-KPFM, which is given by Sugawara et al.  and Ma et al. , has been shown to almost completely remove the stray capacitance effect between the tip and the sample surface. Consequently, Ergoloid to elucidate the origin of atomic resolutions of potential measurements in FM, AM, and HAM-KPFMs, it is necessary to clarify the performance of topographic and potential measurements using the three modes. Here, since the serious stray capacitance effect on LCPD images in AM-KPFM has been illustrated in the past , we simply discussed the potential performance in FM and HAM modes in this paper. Further, a delineation of the potential sensitivity in FM- and HAM-KPFMs, atomic-scale Wortmannin nmr observations, and a comparison of the FM- and HAM-KPFMs must be further investigated experimentally. In this study, for the first time, we investigated HAM-KPFM as a method of enabling quantitative surface potential measurements with high sensitivity by showing the contrast between FM- and HAM-KPFMs. The principle and experimental setup of FM- and HAM-KPFMs are presented.