(c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “

(c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND The alexandrite laser selectively targets melanin and hemoglobin. We used the alexandrite laser with variable pulse widths to treat facial telangiectasia.

METHODS Nineteen patients were enrolled in this study, which consisted of two parts: a series of test spots over a range of pulse durations (3-80ms) and treatment over a larger area based ABT-263 on the pulse width-specific outcomes from the test spots. The final follow-up visit was 12 weeks after irradiation.

RESULTS The 40-ms pulse width achieved the optimal balance of pain tolerance, epidermal tolerance, and vessel

reduction. Mean fluence was 88 J/cm(2), with a 6-mm spot. Overall, a 48% reduction in vessels was noted after one treatment. Side effects were minimal.

CONCLUSIONS In fair-skinned patients with large telangiectasia, the alexandrite laser is a good option for vessel reduction.”
“This study aims to assess the link between fluoride content in groundwater and its impact on dental health in rural communities of the Ethiopian Rift. A total of 148 water samples were collected from two drainage basins within the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). In the Ziway-Shala basin in particular, SNS-032 molecular weight wells had high fluoride levels (mean: 9.4 +/- 10.5 mg/L: range: 1.1 10 68 mg/L). with 48 of 50 exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline limit of 1.5 mg/L. Total average daily intake of fluoride

from drinking groundwater (calculated per weight unit) was also found to be six times higher than the No-Observed-Adverse-Effects-Level (NOAEL) value of 0.06 mg/kg/day. The highest fluoride levels were found in highly-alkaline (pH of 7 to 8.9) groundwater characterized by high salinity; high concentrations of sodium (Na+), bicarbonate (HCO3-), and silica (SiO2); and low concentrations of calcium

(Ca2+). A progressive Ca2+ decrease along the groundwater flow path is associated with an increase of fluoride in the groundwater. The groundwater quality problem is also coupled with the presence of other toxic elements, such as arsenic (As) and uranium (U). The health impact of fluoride was evaluated based on clinical examination of dental fluorosis (DF) among local residents using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (TFI). In total, 200 rural inhabitants selleck chemicals llc between the ages of 7 and 40 years old using water from 12 wells of fluoride range of 7.8-18 mg/L. were examined. Signs of OF (TF score of 1) were observed in all individuals. Most of the teeth (52%) recorded TF scores of 5 and 6, followed by TF scores of 3 and 4 (30%), and 8.4% had TF scores of 7 or higher. Sixty percent of the teeth exhibited loss of the outermost enamel. Within the range of fluoride contents, we did not find any correlation between fluoride content and DF. Finally, preliminary data suggest that milk intake has contributed to reducing the severity of OF.

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