0007). Among positive responders, the extent of purified protein derivative (PPD) triggered IFN-gamma release (P < 0.003) was sensitive to age. ESAT-6 triggered EFN-gamma release (day 7, P = 0.03) and the frequency of PPD-specific IFN-gamma(+)CD4(+) (P = 0.03) and IFN-gamma(+)CD8(+) cells (P = 0.04) were weakly dependent on age. By contrast, the extent of TST induration was insensitive to age (P > 0.05), and sex had no significant
impact on any phenotype measured (P > 0.05). The high proportion of positive responders in the 1-10 year age-group observed with long-term whole blood assays, but not with 3-day this website assays and TST, suggests that long-term whole blood assays may be confounded by bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination in this age group.
CONCLUSION: There is a significant impact of age, but not sex, on different assays of immune reactivity in this high TB transmission setting.”
“BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) are at greater risk for tuberculosis (TB), including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), compared
to the general population. The psychosocial impact of nosocomial TB on HCWs has received little attention in the literature.
METHODS: A retrospective medical record review from 1999 to 2003 found 15 HCWs who were treated for drug-resistant TB at a specialist hospital in South Africa. Five human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative doctors with no predisposing GSK621 factors for drug resistance are included in this case series. We collectively present their clinical case BMS-754807 clinical trial histories based on medical records from 2000 to 2005, and explore the long-term psychosocial impact of TB from interviews conducted in 2009.
RESULTS: Four doctors had primary MDR-TB and one had primary resistance to multiple first-line drugs. Time from symptom onset to commencement of effective treatment ranged from 8 to 39 weeks. Time for bacteriological
confirmation of drug-resistant TB ranged from 6 to 24 weeks. All were cured within 3 years of initial presentation. Content analysis of follow-up interviews revealed five main themes: 1) prolonged morbidity, 2) psychological impact, 3) poor infection control, 4) weak support structures and 5) attrition from the field.
CONCLUSION: Themes emergent from this case series encourage prioritisation of TB infection control education and practice to minimise HCW morbidity and prevent HCW attrition from high-burden resource-constrained settings.”
“Aim: To compare hepcidin and erythropoietin levels in the cord blood of neonates with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) to levels obtained from age-, body mass index- and gravidity-matched neonates with clear amniotic fluid. Methods: A cross-sectional controlled study was conducted in secondary and tertiary care centers.