Moreover, the number of eosinophils was significantly correlated

Moreover, the number of eosinophils was significantly correlated with number of mast cells stained with toluidine blue and number of tryptase- and chymase immunopositive mast cells. In non-active stage of UC positive correlation was observed

only between the number of mast cells stained with toluidine blue and chymase immunopositive cells and eosinophils.

Conclusions: In conclusion, our findings confirmed that mast cells and eosinophils are functionally involved in the course of UC.”
“BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment of Osgood-Schlatter disease is occasionally warranted, but its long-term prognosis remains poorly investigated. We studied the rate of occurrence of surgical treatment of unresolved Osgood-Schlatter disease as well as the clinical course, radiographic characteristics, and long-term outcomes after that treatment in a large population of military recruits.

METHODS: During a thirteen-year period, 178 consecutive Akt activity recruits underwent surgery for unresolved Osgood-Schlatter disease,

and 107 of them (117 knees) who met the inclusion criteria participated in a follow-up examination. We obtained data from the original medical records and radiographs as well as follow-up information from physical and radiographic examinations, interviews, and questionnaires to determine functional outcomes.

RESULTS: The rate of occurrence of surgically treated unresolved Osgood-Schlatter disease was forty-two per 100,000 military recruits. The median age at the onset of symptoms was fifteen years. After a median duration of follow-up of ten years after the surgery, ninety-three patients (87%) reported no restrictions in everyday activities or at work and eighty (75%) had returned to their preoperative level of sports activity. The median modified Kujala score was 95 points, and the median visual analog score for pain was 7 mm. Forty-one patients (38%) reported a complete AZD6244 absence of pain when kneeling. Six patients had experienced minor postoperative complications, and two had undergone a reoperation for the treatment of the Osgood-Schlatter disease. After resection,

the mean tibial tuberosity thickness decreased by 47%. The mean Insall-Salvati index was 1.0 preoperatively and 1.09 postoperatively (p = 0.003), and the corresponding mean Blackburne-Peel indexes were 0.85 and 0.95 (p = 0.003). With the numbers studied, the symptom duration, surgical methods, and radiographic indexes were not found to have an effect on the outcome of surgery.

CONCLUSIONS: In the great majority of young adults, the functional outcome of surgical treatment of unresolved Osgood-Schlatter disease is excellent or good, the residual pain intensity is low, and postoperative complications or subsequent reoperations are rare.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

The objective of the present work was to identify interactions by

The objective of the present work was to identify interactions by evaluating the originals of prescriptions archived from ward clinical of a hospital

specializing in cardiology in the city of Campina Grande/PB, Brazil. The study had transversal, retrospective, and observational character with quantitative approach, and was held in the period from June to July 2010. A total of 196 prescriptions were analyzed and of these, 89.6 % had some type of interaction, and 28.0 Apoptosis Compound Library % of prescriptions had at least one interaction. The most frequent involved were deslanosideo and furosemide (15.1 %), being classified as moderate. This study showed the importance of the pharmacist in the analysis of requirements, who may exercise the clinical pharmacy and contribute to the continuos education on medicines.”
“The Selleck GDC973 stability of corn oil-in-water emulsions coated by milk proteins, sodium caseinate (CAS), or whey protein concentrate (WPC), was compared under the environmental stress of pH change. Emulsions were prepared at 0.1 of protein:oil because the majority of droplets were relatively small (d(32)=0.34 and 0.35 mu m, d(43)=0.65 and 0.37 mu m for CAS- and WPC-emulsions, respectively) and there was no evidence of depletion flocculation. As the pH of the emulsions was gradually dropped from 7 to 3, there was no significant difference in the electrical charges of the emulsion droplets between the 2 types

of emulsions. However, laser diffraction measurements, microscopy measurements, and creaming stability test indicated that WPC-emulsions were more stable to droplet aggregation than CAS-emulsions under the same circumstance of pH change. It implies that factors other than electrostatic repulsion should contribute to the different Ion Channel Ligand Library magnitude of response to pH change.”
“The aim of the study was to formulate and

evaluate controlled release microspheres. Ciprofloxacin HCl, belonging to the class of fluroquinolones, was chosen as the model drug. The drug-loaded microspheres were prepared with different ratios of polymers like sodium alginate and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) by w/o emulsification solvent evaporation method. The prepared microspheres were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, differential scanning colorimetry for drug polymer compatibility studies and scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology. The resulting microspheres were found to be small, discrete, spherical and free flowing. They were further evaluated for their micromeritic properties, particle size analysis, drug loading and entrapment efficiency. The mean particle size was 201.21 mu m. In vitro drug release studies revealed that formulation Fm6 containing sodium CMC as the polymer showed greater sustained effect for 10 hours. Stability studies showed no significant changes in the drug content and physical appearance.

Having one’s expectations fulfilled was most important for a good

Having one’s expectations fulfilled was most important for a good outcome. The results emphasize the importance of assessing patient-orientated outcome in routine practice, and the factors that might influence

it, such that realistic expectations can be established for patients before surgery.”
“This longitudinal this website study assessed the influence of post-transplant clinical and therapeutic variables in 50 kidney transplant recipients aged 2-19 yr receiving a triple immunosuppressive regimen consisting of cyclosporine microemulsion (CsA), steroids and MMF (300-400 mg/m(2) body surface area twice daily), the full pharmacokinetic profile (10 points) of which was investigated on post-transplant days 6, 30, 180 and 360. Total plasma MPA was measured by Enzyme VX-770 supplier Multiplied Immunoassay Technique. CsA therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) was performed via C2 blood monitoring, while MPA TDM via C0. MPA Cmax, tmax, AUC0-12 and AUC0-4 pharmacokinetic profile changed significantly during the first post-transplant year. C0 was a poor predictor of the total MPA exposure [as measured by the area under the concentration-time curve AUC)], while a truncated AUC was a good surrogate of the 12-h profile (r = 0.91; p <

0.001) Graft function and cyclosporine therapy influenced MPA pharmacokinetics, as shown by the univariate and multivariate analyses. We conclude that because after transplantation MPA exposure varied over time, a strict TDM is advisable in the pediatric

“Objective: To develop a new scale to assess psycho-social discomfort in breast cancer (BC) survivors in Japanese society and to investigate its psychometric properties. Method: A total of 248 Japanese BC survivors completed both the Psycho-social Discomfort Scale (PsDS) Vorinostat solubility dmso and WHO Quality of Life BREF Japanese version (WHO QoL-Jp). A principal component factor analysis (with promax rotation) was performed, and internal consistency was examined using Cronbach’s alpha. Divergent and convergent validities and criterion validity were examined using the Spearman’s R. Results: The factor analysis extracted three factors: ‘internalised stigma (IS)’, ‘social disclosure of BC (SD)’, and ` psychological resources to live with BC (PR)’. The factors were moderately correlated. The scale had good internal consistency (alpha = 0.80). All sub-scales were inversely correlated with all the domains in the WHO QoL-Jp (r(5) = -0.09 to -0.47). BC stage was significantly correlated with the SD sub-scale, and type of surgery was significantly correlated with the IS sub-scale. Conclusions: The PsDS has 25 items. It measures psycho-social discomfort that Japanese BC survivors experienced or were experiencing in their community. It has a simple factor structure, relatively good internal consistency, and a satisfactory divergent validity. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Study Design. Comparative knowledge survey.


We analyzed serum samples from 60 Egyptian patients (31 females a

We analyzed serum samples from 60 Egyptian patients (31 females and 29 males) with a mean age of 40.2 +/- 17.4 years with active psoriasis, and 21 healthy volunteers for major T-helper type 1 cytokines using the ELISA technique. The disease severity, including erythema, induration and scales, was assessed by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were markedly elevated in all sera from psoriatic patients.

TNF-alpha was found a more efficient predictor for disease severity than IL-8 and IFN-gamma using three receiver-operator curves with accuracy. IL-8 was also moderately elevated and correlated with the age of patients (r = 0.28). We have obtained evidence that TNF-alpha in our study was found to be more useful than the other two tested cytokines, IL-8 Alvespimycin cell line and IFN-gamma as a follow-up marker for monitoring disease severity in Egyptian psoriatic patients. A positive correlation between lL-8 and the age of the patients was also noted.”
“Superficial leiomyosarcoma has an incidence of less than 3% of the cutaneous soft-tissue sarcomas, and 1% to 5% of the tumors occur on the face. Because of its rarity and unusual location, preoperative misdiagnosis is common. An 82-year-old woman visited with a preauricular huge and hemorrhagic mass. The mass developed 4 months ago and showed rapid progression.

First impressions of the tumor were squamous cell carcinoma and keratoacanthoma. However, the biopsy indicated a high degree of suspicion of leiomyosarcoma. On the metastasis workup, there was no metastatic lesion. CGP-57148B The patient underwent a wide excision with 3-cm margin, and the raw surface was covered with split-thickness skin graft. All resection margins were free of tumor, and the stage was IA according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer grading system. The skin graft was well taken, and the patient is well with no evidence of disease recurrence or metastasis after 18 months.”
“Purpose of review

Although the conservative approach including Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy is considered

as the first-line option in high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder tumors, cystectomy is often required AG-014699 as an alternative treatment in the case of BCG failure. Considering all the parameters, including clinical data, endoscopic aspects and new biological markers, the question of the indication, and moreover timing, of cystectomy has become crucial.

Recent findings

In fact, the real positive effect of BCG remains controversial and its actual benefit in terms of survival is not evident. Therefore, early cystectomy for this population with high risk of progression and metastasis diffusion is clearly a radical approach which can lead to a reduction in specific mortality. Recent articles have studied the parameters involved in this issue to determine the exact timing of cystectomy.


To avoid delay of appropriate treatment, it is crucial to determine the non-BCG responder population.

001), a non-significant tendency for flatter L5 slopes (decrease

001), a non-significant tendency for flatter L5 slopes (decrease from -0.20 to -0.16 Hz/s, p < 0.066), higher initial median frequency (L1 increase from 58 to 64 Hz p < 0.001, L5 increase from 76 to 84 Hz p = 0.001) and improved questionnaire scores. The questionnaires Oswestry, Roland-Morris and SF-36 physical functioning correlated with the endurance time 0.69-0.93 and with L5 slope 0.01-0.93 and the highest correlations were found in women.

Both EMG and endurance time measurements are needed for evaluating fatigue in lumbar-disc herniation.”
“In women, the association between chronic marijuana smoking

and early miscarriage has long been known. Anandamide, a major endocannabinoid, NVP-BSK805 concentration mimics some of the psychotropic. hypnotic and analgesic effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. the psychoactive component of marijuana. The uterus contains the highest concentrations of anandamide yet discovered in mammalian tissues and this suggests that it might play

a role in reproduction. The production of small amounts of nitric oxide (NO) regulates various physiological events including implantation and myometrial relaxation, but in an inflammatory setting such as sepsis. NO has toxic effects as it is a free radical. The results presented in this study indicate that anandamide modulates NO production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in an in-vitro murine model. It was shown that LPS-induced NO synthesis and tissue Nocodazole damage were mediated by anandamide. as a cannabinoid receptor type I antagonist could block the effect of LPS (P < 0.001). This endotoxin inhibited anandamide uterine degradation (P < 0.05) and increased the expression of one of its synthesizing

enzymes (P < 0.05). Contrary to the known anti-inflammatory and protective effects, in this model anandamide seems to act as a pro-inflammatory molecule modulating the production of NO induced by LPS. This proinflammatory effect of anandamide may be implicated in pathological reproductive events such as septic abortion.”
“In coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), graft flow distal to a mild stenosis can compete with relatively preserved native flow through the stenosis and the competition can result in graft stenosis. In chronic total occlusion (CTO), coronary collateral circulation, which is essential to maintain myocardial viability distal to CTO, varies in extent among patients and the extent can be scored by Rentrop grade in coronary angiography. We investigated whether rich collateral circulation distal to CTO competes with distally anastomosed graft flow in association with Rentrop grade.

002; synchronous-2: P = 006) and tumor-induced stroma (synchrono

002; synchronous-2: P = .006) and tumor-induced stroma (synchronous-1: P = .011; synchronous-2: P = .001) in synchronous OSCCs than in single primary OSCCs. Depth of invasion was considerably lower in synchronous OSCCs than in single primary OSCCs (synchronous-1: P = .007; synchronous-2: P = .002). Lymph node metastasis (synchronous-1: P = .051; synchronous-2: P = .051) was found to be rare in synchronous OSCCs compared with single primary OSCCs.

Conclusion. Synchronous OSCCs show less aggressive histopathologic PLX4032 cell line features than single primary OSCCs. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 732-738)”
“The minority

electron transport is crucial for the performances of heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). Among the III-V semiconductors family, GaAsSb exhibits several advantages making it

a serious candidate learn more for the new generation of high speed HBTs. However, this alloy suffers from a lack of experimental studies. Properties such as electronic structure and charge carrier mobilities are of prime importance in theoretical device operation calculations. In this article, we investigate the minority electron mobilities by means of an ensemble Monte Carlo modeling including polar optical phonon-plasmon coupling through a self-consistent dielectric function. Realistic electronic structures are provided by a nonlocal empirical pseudopotential method. It is found that GaAs0.50Sb0.50 does not show a mobility enhancement for very high acceptor doping levels unlike GaAs and Ga0.47In0.53As. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3533963]“
“Objectives. It is well established that fibrous dysplasia (FD) is caused by mutations of the Arg(201) codon of the GNAS gene. However, the role of GNAS mutation in the pathogenesis of cement-osseous dysplasias (COD) and cemento-ossifying fibromas (COF) is not JQ1 fully known. In this study, we examined COD and COF for mutations at the Arg(201) codon of the GNAS gene.

Study design. The study sample included formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from 8 COF and 24 COD. We used 2 PCR-RFLP methods to detect mutations at the Arg(201)

codon of the GNAS gene.

Results. Mutations at the Arg(201) codon of the GNAS gene were not present in any of the COD and COF examined.

Conclusions. GNAS mutations do not play a role in the pathogenesis of COD and COF. This highlights a clear molecular distinction between FD and other histologically similar fibro-osseous lesions of the jaws. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 739-743)”
“The Brisighella Heart Study (BHS) is a prospective, population-based longitudinal epidemiological investigation, which, at baseline enrolled 2939 randomly selected subjects (1491 men and 1448 women), aged 14-84 years, free of cardiovascular disease at enrollment, resident in the northern Italian rural town of Brisighella.

Sixty-six patients underwent transesophageal testing Forty-nine

Sixty-six patients underwent transesophageal testing. Forty-nine of 66 patients demonstrated low-risk pathway characteristics and 40 of 49 underwent no further testing. In total, 68 of 129 (53%) patients avoided

the need for intracardiac EP study and ablation. A noncardiac indication for the initial diagnostic electrocardiogram Fer-1 cell line was associated with lower likelihood of intracardiac EP study. None of the patients stratified as low risk had additional invasive procedures or life-threatening arrhythmias upon follow-up.

Conclusions: Successful risk stratification of pediatric patients with VP is possible through the use of exercise and transesophageal testing. In this patient population, half of the patients were able to avoid an intracardiac EP study. (PACE 2011; 34:555-562).”
“Our objective was to identify the outcome of patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPa) in Pakistan and compare these data to available regional and international data. The charts of all patients treated with r-tPa for acute stroke at two centers in Pakistan (Aga Khan University, Karachi and Liaquat National hospital, Karachi) were retrospectively reviewed. We identified 21 patients. The utilization of tPa at Aga Khan Hospital was 18/1,185 patients (1.5%) from 2005 to 2007 while at Liaquat National Hospital was 3/575 patients (0.52%) over 1 year (2007). Mean

time interval between stroke onset Pevonedistat cost and start of r-tPa infusion was 169 min. Three patients (14%) developed fatal selleck chemical hemorrhage and two (10%) developed non-fatal hemorrhage. Four patients (19%) died. We identified protocol violations in seven patients (33%). In conclusion, the utilization of thrombolytic therapy is low and complication rate is high. Interventions for training physicians are needed.”
“Purpose: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly

women in low-level aged care.

Subjects and methods: Sixty-three ambulatory women (mean age 86 years) participated in this cross-sectional study where body composition was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); ankle, knee, and hip strength by the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester; and physical function by ‘timed up and go’ (TUG) and walking speed (WS) over 6 meters. Body composition data from a female reference group (n = 62, mean age 29 years) provided cut-off values for defining sarcopenia.

Results: Elderly women had higher body mass index (P < 0.001), lower lean mass (P < 0.001), and higher fat mass (P < 0.01) than the young reference group. Only a small proportion (3.2%) had absolute sarcopenia (defined by appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height squared) whereas 37% had relative sarcopenia class II (defined by percentage skeletal muscle mass). Scores for TUG and WS indicated relatively poor physical function, yet these measures were not associated with muscle mass or indices of sarcopenia.

Literature databases were searched up to 10/2010 The authors of

Literature databases were searched up to 10/2010. The authors of the original Danusertib chemical structure publication were contacted, and the original patient data were requested. A meta-analysis was performed using a random effect meta-analytic method for diagnostic tests. In addition, available data comparing ARFI with

FibroScan with the DeLong test were evaluated. Literature search yielded nine full-paper publications evaluating ARFI while using liver biopsy as reference method. Original patient data were available from eight studies including 518 patients. The mean diagnostic accuracy of ARFI expressed as areas under ROC curves (AUROC) was 0.87 for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (F = 2), 0.91 for the diagnosis of severe fibrosis (F = 3), and 0.93 for the diagnosis of cirrhosis. ARFI can be performed with good diagnostic accuracy for the noninvasive staging of liver fibrosis.”
“An industrial, ethanol-tolerant

strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, NRRLY-132, was genetically engineered to over-express barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 such that it was either anchored on the cell surface or secreted into the medium. The recombinant yeast strains were compared for their ability to perform fermentation on soluble starch. Both recombinant yeast strains produced clear halos on starch plates, indicating that they possessed amylolytic activity. In batch fermentation studies, the recombinant yeast strain that secreted barley alpha-amylase showed starch hydrolysis rates of 0.70 gL(-1) h(-1) on 20 g L(-1) starch, which was almost double that of the anchored form. The addition of exogenous PND-1186 glucoamylase did not enhance starch hydrolysis rates but did increase ethanol yields, presumably by enhancing production of reducing sugars from the oligosaccharides produced by barley alpha-amylase. The ethanol yield

of the secreting Copanlisib PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor strain in batch fermentations containing 20 g L(-1) starch was 3.46 g L(-1), which was approximately three times higher than the anchored strain. By optimizing the batch fermentation conditions, ethanol yields were obtained that approached 70% of theoretical maximum. The results indicate that barley alpha-amylase, due to its ability to hydrolyze starch under the low pH conditions that occur during fermentation, should be more closely examined as an amylase source for bioethanol production. Furthermore, our results suggest that yeast strains that secrete alpha-amylase into the medium may be more efficacious relative to cell surface-displayed systems. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We present a detailed study on the magnetic properties, including anisotropy, reversal fields, and magnetization reversal processes, of well characterized half-metallic epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) thin films grown onto SrTiO3 (STO) substrates with three different surface orientations, i.e., (001), (110), and (1 (1) over bar8).

The present model could be used as a reliable tool to


The present model could be used as a reliable tool to

accurately predict the porosity and to analyze the dynamic mechanisms involved during drying processes. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The immunomodulatory cationic host defence peptide LL-37 plays an important role in epithelial innate immunity; at higher concentrations (20-50 mu g mL(-1)) associated with inflammation, LL-37 elicits the production of cytokines and chemokines. It was demonstrated here that lower, physiologically relevant LL-37 concentrations (2-3 mu g mL(-1)) altered epithelial cell responses to proinflammatory stimuli. In combination with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and the Toll-like Ruboxistaurin chemical structure receptor-5 (TLR5) agonist flagellin, these low concentrations of LL-37 synergistically increased IL-8 production by both proliferating and differentiated keratinocytes and by bronchial epithelial cells. In combination with the TLR2/1 agonist PAM3CSK4, LL-37 synergistically induced transcription and the release of both IL-8 and IL-6 from primary bronchial epithelial cells; the IL-8 response was demonstrated to be regulated by epidermal growth Belinostat cost factor receptor signalling. Treatment of bronchial epithelial cells with LL-37 and the TLR3 agonist polyI:C resulted in synergistic increases in IL-8 release and cytotoxicity. These data indicate

that low concentrations of LL-37 may alter epithelial responses to infecting microorganisms in vivo.”
“The advent of sentinel lymph node biopsy changed the way the surgical community treated breast cancer. It also reduced the post operative morbidity for millions of patients. SCH727965 ic50 Now that

sentinel lymph node biopsy has become the mainstay of treatment, new clinical questions have arisen and continued research is being done to answer these questions. This report details a brief history of sentinel lymph node biopsy and how it was applied in the treatment a breast cancer. This report also includes a review of the current literature regarding unique clinical scenarios involving sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer including the ACOSOG Z011 trial. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The effects of calcium and storage time on physicochemical properties and nanostructure of chelate-soluble pectin (CSP) of apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) at 0 degrees C were investigated. During the storage, the firmness did not change with the contents but consistent with the morphology changes of CSP, which were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The branching structures of CSP decreased, meanwhile, the frequencies of chains with small width (<35 nm) and lengths (<500 nm) of CSP chains increased, which showed more in the control group than in the 1% calcium treated group. Compared to the control and 3% calcium treated groups, treatment with 1% calcium delayed the changes of physicochemical properties and degradation of the depolymerization of CSP during the fruit softening.

(Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: e63-

(Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: e63-e69)”
“P>The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a multi-protein complex that regulates the activities of cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs). CRLs ubiquitinate buy BIIB057 proteins in order to target them for proteasomal degradation. The CSN is required for proper plant development. Here we show that the CSN also has a profound effect on plant defense responses. Silencing of genes for CSN subunits in tomato plants resulted in a mild morphological phenotype and reduced expression of wound-responsive genes in response to mechanical wounding, attack by Manduca sexta larvae, and Prosystemin over-expression. In contrast, expression of pathogenesis-related

genes was increased in a stimulus-independent manner in these plants. The reduced wound response in CSN-silenced plants corresponded with reduced synthesis of jasmonic acid (JA), but levels of salicylic acid (SA) were unaltered. As a consequence, these

plants exhibited reduced resistance against herbivorous M. sexta larvae and the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. In contrast, susceptibility to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was not altered in CSN-silenced plants. These data demonstrate that the CSN orchestrates not only plant development but also JA-dependent plant defense responses.”
“P>Meiosis is essential for eukaryotic sexual reproduction, with two consecutive rounds of nuclear divisions, allowing production of haploid gametes. Information regarding the meiotic transcriptome should provide valuable clues about check details global MK-4827 expression patterns and detailed gene activities. Here we used RNA sequencing to explore the transcriptome of a single plant cell type, the Arabidopsis male meiocyte,

detecting the expression of approximately 20 000 genes. Transcription of introns of > 400 genes was observed, suggesting previously unannotated exons. More than 800 genes may be preferentially expressed in meiocytes, including known meiotic genes. Of the 3378 Pfam gene families in the Arabidopsis genome, 3265 matched meiocyte-expressed genes, and 18 gene families were over-represented in male meiocytes, including transcription factor and other regulatory gene families. Expression was detected for many genes thought to encode meiosis-related proteins, including MutS homologs (MSHs), kinesins and ATPases. We identified more than 1000 orthologous gene clusters that are also expressed in meiotic cells of mouse and fission yeast, including 503 single-copy genes across the three organisms, with a greater number of gene clusters shared between Arabidopsis and mouse than either share with yeast. Interestingly, approximately 5% transposable element genes were apparently transcribed in male meiocytes, with a positive correlation to the transcription of neighboring genes. In summary, our RNA-Seq transcriptome data provide an overview of gene expression in male meiocytes and invaluable information for future functional studies.”