25 The resulting amino acid change in the PER2 protein affects its phosphorylation by CKIδ/ε, and its stability and intracellular localization, hence the short period and advanced sleep phase of the patients.26,27 Interestingly, in another FASPD family, a mutation was found in the gene encoding CKIδ.28 A number of studies have focused on a polymorphism In the human PER3 gene. In one study, this polymorphism was found to be associated with delayed sleep phase dis? order (DSPD).29,30 PER3 variants
have also been associated with morning-evening preference, in this study, possibly through an effect on sleep structure, but not circadian timing. Viola and colleagues31 #ABT-888 research buy keyword# found that individuals homozygous for the PER35 allele showed marked differences in sleep compared with those homozygous for PER3,4 including greater sleep propensity, increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) and greater susceptibility Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to the effects of sleep deprivation. However, the circadian rhythms of melatonin, Cortisol, and activity were similar in both groups.31 This suggests that different clock genes may affect chronotype, either via direct effects on the clock, or
through other mechanisms such as sleep homeostasis. Polymorphism of the human Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical CLOCK gene has also been associated with evening preference and delayed timing of the sleep-wake cycle32,33 (but there are also conflicting results34). Subjects carrying one or two copies of the CLOCK 31 11C allele showed increased eveningness and reduced mornlngness, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical while 3111T/T subjects showed higher morningness scores.32,33 Although
the 3111C/C genotype is also associated with delayed sleep timing and greater daytime sleepiness in a Japanese population,33 thus far there is insufficient evidence to draw the same conclusions in Caucasians.32 There is currently no evidence Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to support an association between the 3111C/C genotype and DSPD.34,35 There is evidence to suggest that evening chronotype could increase the risk of psychiatric disorders.36 Both bipolar disorder (BPD) and schlzophrenla/schizoaffective patients show greater eveningness scores than controls. In BPD this observation appears Adenosine to be correlated with age (ie, younger BPD patients were more extreme “evening types”), while schizophrenla/schizoaffectlve subjects tended to show greater eveningness at all ages. Being classified as an “evening type” could account for some of the sleep disturbances reported by BPD patients36 and could increase the severity of BPD as evidenced by an earlier age at onset of treatment, greater likelihood of self-reported rapid mood swings, and rapidcycling mood changes.36 Some work suggests there may be a relationship between DSPD and personality disorder.37 In one study, 16% of institutionalized mentally 111 adolescents were also diagnosed with DSPS,38 as compared with 7.3% of adolescents in Western countries.