Competing interests The author(s) declare that they have no compe

Competing interests The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions DE carried out all statistical analyses and drafted the manuscript. JN led data collection and assisted in study conceptualization. MC participated in data collection and cleaning, and participated in hypothesis generation. PW was involved in all stages from conceptualization to interpretation of data analyses, and contributed significantly Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to writing of all sections of the manuscript. KD is the PI of the parent study, served as senior author and

oversaw all steps of manuscript preparation with DE. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Pre-publication history The pre-publication history for this Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical paper can be accessed here: Acknowledgements This work was supported by Grant HL-088117 from the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of NCRR or NIH. Dr. Edmondson is supported by grant

KM1 CA-156709. The funders had no role in the design, collection, analysis, or Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; or in the decision to submit the manuscript Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for publication.
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) result in almost 17 000 emergency department (ED) visits per year in Sweden and account for more than 1 million ED

visits each year in both the United States of America and the United Kingdom [1-3]. Most of them (up to 95%) are classified as mild head injuries (MHI) [4], commonly defined as a head trauma Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with short loss of consciousness (LOC) or amnesia for the accident, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 14–15 and no find more neurological deficits at the time of medical inspection. These patients have been notoriously difficult to manage since they have a low, but not negligible, risk of an intracranial complication, which may be life threatening [5]. Pathological computed tomography (CT) results after MHI are found in 0.5-20% of Phosphoprotein phosphatase patients (0-8% for significant complications) and the need for neurosurgical intervention is between 0-1% [6]. Scandinavian guidelines for management of minimal, mild and moderate head injuries were presented by the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee (SNC) in the year 2000 [1]. For patients with GCS 14–15 and LOC and/or amnesia, these guidelines recommend head CT or, as a secondary option, hospital admission with clinical observation. Similar guidelines have been published from other groups [7-9] and all have the same goal; to stratify patients with MHI into risk groups for intracranial complications.

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