(C) RSNA, 2011″
“This observational microdialysis (MD) study

(C) RSNA, 2011″
“This observational microdialysis (MD) study of 33 subarachnoid hemorrhage patients explores brain interstitial levels of glutamine, glutamate, lactate and pyruvate, and their relationship to clinical status and clinical course at the neurointensive care unit.

The focus was on ischemic events, defined by clinical criteria or by radiology, and the significance of brain interstitial glutamine levels and lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio.

Eleven Torin 2 in vitro out of 12 periods with an ischemic MD pattern, defined as lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratios exceeding 40, were either related to delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND)

or CT-verified infarcts, confirming that L/P above 40 is a specific ischemic and pathological MD measure. Poor admittance WFNS grade (WFNS 4-5) patients had lower glutamine at the onset of monitoring than what good admittance WFNS grade (WFNS 1-3) patients had (P < 0.05). Interstitial glutamine increased over time in most patients. A “”glutamine surge”" was defined as a period where the interstitial glutamine concentration increased at least 150 mu M over 12 h. Fifteen patients had a DIND

and associated MD patterns RG-7388 purchase were glutamine surges (n = 12) and/or L/P > 40 (n = 6). Seven patients received vasospasm treatment; in five of these the only DIND-associated MD pattern was a glutamine surge. Seventy percent of the glutamine surges occurred during ongoing propofol sedation, and there was no association between extubations and glutamine surges. There was no difference in mean glutamine levels during the monitoring period between patients with favorable 6-month outcome and patients with poor 6-month outcome.

We suggest that an increasing interstitial glutamine trend is a dynamic sign of augmented astrocytic GSK923295 price metabolism with accelerated glutamate uptake and glutamine synthesis. This pattern

is presumably present in metabolically challenged, but yet not overt ischemic tissue.”
“Introduction: There are little data on cardiologists knowledge and application of current implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) guidelines, attitudes to risk, and how these may influence ICD prescription. Methods: A questionnaire survey was sent to UK cardiologists to test their knowledge and application of ICD guidelines and their estimate of the clinical benefits gained in different clinical scenarios. They were questioned on the minimum absolute risk reduction (ARR) required to justify an ICD implant and factors that influenced their decision making. Results: Sixty responses from 23 implanters and 37 nonimplanters were obtained. Eighty-three percent implanters and 43% nonimplanters were fully aware of UK ICD National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines. Only 7% responders had a screening program to identify primary prevention (PP) candidates. Although the mean estimate of ARR in PP scenarios was similar to trial data, the range of estimates was very wide.

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