Type species Caryosporella rhizophorae Kohlm., Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Pl. Sci. 94: 356 (1985). (Fig. 20) Fig. 20 Caryosporella rhizophoriae (from NY. Herb. J. Kohlmeyer No. 4532a, holotype). a Gregarious ascomata on host surface. b Section of an ascoma. c, d Section of partial peridium at sides (c) and base (d). Note the three layers. e Asci with long peduncles in pseudoparaphyses. f, g Ascospores. Note the “net”-like ridged ornamentation of spore surface and hyaline germ pores. Scale bars: a = 1 mm, b = 200 μm, c–e = 100 μm,
f, g = 10 μm Ascomata 0.8–1.1 mm high × 0.9–1.2 mm diam., densely BTK inhibitor clinical trial scattered or gregarious, superficial with a ARRY-438162 ic50 flattened base, not easily removed from the host surface, subglobose, black, short papillate, ostiolate, periphysate, carbonaceous (Fig. 20a and b). Peridium 120–150 μm thick at sides, up to 200 μm thick at the apex, thinner at the base, 3-layered, outer layer composed of golden-yellow, very thick-walled cells of textura epidermoidea, mixed with subglobose, large cells near the surface, cells 7–15 μm diam., middle layer composed of deep brown, very thick-walled cells of textura epidermoidea, inner layer composed of hyaline, thin-walled cells of textura prismatica, up to 50 × 5 μm diam., merging with pseudoparaphyses (Fig. 20b, c and d). Hamathecium of dense, long trabeculate SB202190 in vivo pseudoparaphyses, 1.5-2 μm wide, anastomosing and branching above the asci. Asci
225–250(−275) × 14–17 μm (\( \barx = 137 \times 16.3\mu m \), n = 10), 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate,
cylindrical, with a long, narrowed, pedicel which is up to 75 μm long, apical characters not observed (Fig. 20e). Ascospores 25–28(−30) × 9–13 μm L-gulonolactone oxidase (\( \barx = 26.8 \times 11\mu m \), n = 10), uniseriate to partially overlapping, ellipsoidal to broadly fusoid with narrow hyaline rounded ends, deep reddish brown, thick-walled, 1-septate with hyaline germ pore at each end, slightly constricted at the septum, verruculose, sometimes with “net”-like ridged ornamentations (Fig. 20f and g). Anamorph: suspected spermatia (Kohlmeyer 1985). Material examined: BELIZE, Twin Cays, tip of prop root of Rhizophora mangle, 18 Mar. 1984, J. Kohlmeyer (NY. Herb. J. Kohlmeyer No. 4532a, holotype). Notes Morphology Caryosporella was formally established by Kohlmeyer (1985) based on the obligate marine fungus, C. rhizophorae, which is characterized by its superficial ascomata, 3-layered peridium, filliform trabeculate pseudoparaphyses, and brown, 1-septate ascospores. Caryosporella was originally assigned to Massariaceae despite several major differences, such as the superficial ascomata, reddish brown ascospores (Kohlmeyer 1985). Subsequently, Caryosporella was assigned to Melanommataceae (Eriksson 2006; Lumbsch and Huhndorf 2007). Phylogenetic study Suetrong et al. (2009) showed that a single isolate of Caryosporella rhizophorae does not reside in Pleosporales, but is related to Lineolata rhizophorae (Kohlm. & E.