This finding underscores the need to implement more effective smoking cessation interventions targeting this group, such as integrating tobacco treatment choose size into mental health settings and comprehensive tobacco control programs (Prochaska, 2010). Given the low quit rate among persons with mental illness and the fact that the tobacco industry has designed products and marketing strategies to target consumer segments with mental illness (Cook, Wayne, Keithly, & Connolly, 2003; Prochaska, Hall, & Bero, 2008), it is important to conduct research to examine the effectiveness of potential tobacco control policies, in addition to individual treatment approaches (Schroeder, 2009), in reducing smoking among this subgroup.
Also, many mental health providers and administrators believe that tobacco cessation treatment is unrealistic for their clients and will negatively effect on psychiatric symptoms or management (Schroeder & Morris, 2010). Future research evaluating the health and economic burden of smoking for those with mental illness is needed to motivate mental health providers and policy makers to promote and fund smoking cessation treatment for this subgroup. Funding This study was supported by funding from the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program of the University of California (#18XT-0092 and #13KT-0152), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (#K23 DA018691 and #P50 DA09253), and the National Institute of Mental Health (#P30 MH082760). Declaration of Interests None declared. Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to Dr. Teh-wei Hu and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.
However, the authors alone are responsible for the findings.
Cigarette smoking is declining in Norway, a trend shown both in population surveys and official sales statistics of smoking tobacco products (M. Lund & Lindbak, 2007; Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, 2010). Daily smoking has dropped continually since 1973 among men and since 2000 among women. A gender convergence in daily smoking occurred in the late 1990s and has been present since (Norwegian Directorate of Health, 2010). The amount of smoking tobacco consumed annually per adult decreased from 2 to 1.5 kg for men and from 1.6 to 1.3 kg for women in the period 1996�C2007 (K. E. Lund, Lund, & Bryhni, 2009). From 1996 to 2009, daily smoking among 16�C24 years dropped from 30% to 15% (Statistics Norway, 2007).
However, in the adult population, there has been no significant decline Brefeldin_A in smoking rates during the most recent period, causing speculation that a smoking prevalence plateau has been reached. The Norwegian Tobacco Act came into force in 1975, with the most important regulations being a ban on tobacco advertising and age restrictions for buying tobacco. Since then, several tobacco control measures have been introduced.