However, during their work on estimating ground subsidence from s

However, during their work on estimating ground subsidence from satellite data, Fujiwara et al. [26] and Shimada [27] noted that it was effectively quite difficult to differentiate the atmospheric delay phase due to water vapor from the phase due to changes in the Earth’s crust. The atmospheric delay itself is found to be a direct cause of remarkable observational error. For this reason, in order to increase the precision of change detection in the Earth’s crust, research on the effects of water vapor on microwaves, and their mitigation, is essential [5,27�C30].Changes in atmospheric water vapor are extremely complex, with 3-dimensional changes taking place not only in the vertical, but also in the horizontal directions [5,29,31].

It is extremely difficult to correct for the local effects of water vapor when local aerological data are not available [32]. The PSInSAR method attempts to handle this issues by temporal averaging of up to 30 SAR images [9]. Conventional researches with respect to the atmospheric impacts on InSAR mainly examine the effects of changes in atmospheric water vapor with altitude, limiting therefore the precision of this methodology in most of the past studies on atmospheric delay using InSAR techniques [33,34].There is therefore a great urge nowadays for quantitatively obtaining 3-dimensional spatial distributions of water vapor in order to estimate the atmospheric delay on InSAR data, as due to the changes in atmospheric water vapor contents. This is a very challenging issue, especially when one has to quantitatively assess these distributions and the related atmospheric impacts in order to use them with the JERS-1 SAR data.

We have to note here that these satellite data were observed from 1992.01.11 to 1998.10.12, a period when no archived upper-level meteorological data are available over Japan.In this study, using GIS as analytical platform, we aim at estimating the spatial variation and the temporal changes in ground subsidence over the Nobi Plain using Batimastat both ground level measurements data and InSAR data. However, notwithstanding the availability of weather charts and detailed information of ground surface atmospheric conditions (temperature, pressure, water vapor, wind, etc.

) over Japan during the JERS-1 period (1992�C1998), detailed information for upper atmospheric layers has been made available by the Japan Meteorological Agency only after 2002 with its multi-layer and multi-temporal Grid Point Value of Meso-Scale Model (GPV-MSM) data set (see Section 2.2 for details). We therefore propose to use the Analog Weather Chart (hereafter, AWC) method [35,36] in order to estimate from the analog GPV-MSM weather charts and datasets those water vapor inputs needed for calculating water vapor effects on the JERS-1 SAR interferometry data.

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