To overcome this shortage, an operation procedure of two steps ha

To overcome this shortage, an operation procedure of two steps has been proposed [2]. In the first step which is also called the MIMO mode, each radar transmits a probing signal (usually orthogonal waveforms) to estimate the time delay differences and total phase differences between sub-radars and the master radar, and they are referred to as coherence parameters (CPs) [2�C5]. In the second step which is also called the coherent mode, all radars transmit coherent waveforms adjusted by the estimated CPs from MIMO mode. Clearly, the estimation accuracy of CPs greatly impacts the coherence gain that can be obtained by NGR, which raises two important questions: What is the best estimation accuracy for the CPs? How much coherence gain can we get assuming that estimation accuracy is achievable?Another problem in NGR lies in the constraint of system size, i.

e., the number of radars cannot be arbitrarily large in practice. Thus, the maximum SNR gain that can be obtained merely through the spatially coherent processing of distributed radars is limited, which is unfavorable in detecting and tracking long-range weak targets. To settle this problem, it is natural and essential to emit pulse trains in NGR, which means we will accumulate the energy of echoes not only from different radars but also from multiple pulses.

In NGR transmitting pulse trains, new questions immediately emerge: How will the introduction of pulse trains affect the estimation accuracy of aforementioned CPs? Are there any new parameters that need to be estimated? If any, what is the best estimation accuracy for those parameters? What is the optimal coherence performance for NGR with pulse trains?A thorough review of the existing literature on NGR reveals that the present signal models in NGR are all based on single pulse schemes [2�C5], whereas the transmission of pulse trains has not been considered yet. From the aspect of parameter estimation, [4] derived the CRBs of time delay differences and T/R phase differences for a general NGR architecture, but the CRBs of total phase differences are not given. Therefore, the CRBs of CPs have not been thoroughly worked out so far, according to the definition of CPs. In the field of performance analysis, [4] derived the performance bound of NGR based only on the CRBs of T/R phase differences, assuming that all time delay differences are ideally compensated.

In [5] a formula of coherence gain taking all types of estimation errors into consideration Cilengitide was presented, but the performance bounds were not analyzed. Therefore, the performance bound analysis of NGR still remains an unresolved problem.In addition, it is worth pointing out that the parameter estimation of NGR should be distinguished from the parameter estimation of MIMO radar which has been studied in [6�C17], despite their superficial similarities in emitting orthogonal waveforms.

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