The MIC and MBC/MFC values were used to compare the antimicrobial

The MIC and MBC/MFC values were used to compare the antimicrobial activity of extracts. The selection of active extracts for this assay was made based on the size of inhibition zones (higher Ibrutinib cell line than 11 mm) formed in the agar well diffusion method. The results of MIC, MBC and MFC values showed in Table 2 and Table 3. The data indicate that the extracts exhibited variable levels of antimicrobial activity against the investigated

microorganisms. The inhibitory property of the extracts was observed within a range of concentrations from 2 to 1024 μg/ml. The methanol extracts of C. coromandelicum showed a significant antibacterial activity with MIC of 64 μg/ml against S. typhi and antifungal activity with MIC of 128 μg/ml ABT-263 A. niger, A. polytricha and C. albicans. The MBC value of S. typhi was found to be 128 μg/ml and MFC

of 256 μg/ml obtained for the A. niger, A. polytricha and C. albicans. Among the four plant extracts, the methanolic extracts of C. coromandelicum show the highest inhibition of HIV-RT inhibition 78.67% and gp120 binding inhibition 72.52% Table 4. In the present study, extract of C. coromandelicum was tested for antimicrobial activity against 16 microbial pathogens. Among them are included E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. typhi, Shigella spp, B. subtilis, Micrococcus and Staphylococcus spp. The fungal pathogens A. niger, A. polytricha, A. oligospora, C. albicans, C. raphigera and M. fruticola was chosen for this study. Among fungal strain C. albicans causes serious systemic infections, together with opportunistic infection in patients infected with HIV virus. Infectious diseases of microbial origin constitute the major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. With the emergence of HIV, the negative

role of these microfloras has become even worse as they facilitate the infection rate Astemizole by the virus or by significantly reducing the onset time of AIDS. 14 Intensive use of antibiotics often resulted in the development of resistant strains. Nowadays, there are very few or none, if any, antibiotics to which these micro-organisms have not developed resistance. Plant extracts are potential sources of antimicrobial agents. Numerous studies demonstrated that the extracts of other plant species possessed activity with regard to antimicrobial properties. 15 The methanol extract of C. coromandelicum exerted a broad antimicrobial spectrum by inhibiting the growth of human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) and fungus. This is reflected by the presence zone of inhibition diameters observed in the inoculated plates and further confirmed with microdilution broth method. Among these bacteria, E. coli, Shigella spp and S. typhi can cause serious such as diarrhoea, dysentery, typhoid fever and other intestinal diseases to the human beings. 16 However, C. coromandelicum extract was found to be active against the above Gram negative bacteria.

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