KPK has had research grant support from Pfizer and has served on

KPK has had research grant support from Pfizer and has served on pneumococcal external expert committees convened by Pfizer, Merck, Aventis-pasteur, and selleck chemicals llc GlaxoSmithKline. RD has received grants/research support from Berna/Crucell, Wyeth/Pfizer, MSD, Protea; has been a scientific

consultant for Berna/Crucell, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, Wyeth/Pfizer, Protea, MSD and a speaker for Berna/Crucell, GlaxoSmithKline, Wyeth/Pfizer; he is a shareholder of Protea/NASVAX. JAGS has received research grant support from GSK and travel and accommodation support to attend a meeting convened by Merck. SAM has had research grant support from GlaxoSmithKline anmd Pfizer, and has served on pneumococcal external committees convened by Pfizer,

MERCK and GlaxoSmithKline. DG has received honoraria for participation in external expert advisory committees on pneumococcal vaccines convened by Pfizer, GSK, Sanofi Pasteur find more and Merck. His laboratory performs contract research for Merck, Sanofi Pasteur and GSK. MGL has served as speaker in several GSK conferences and as member of two GSK advisory board meetings. HN has served on pneumococcal vaccination external expert committees convened by GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, and sanofi-pasteur. Other authors report no potential conflicts of interest. “
“Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are highly effective in preventing the most serious forms of vaccine serotype (VT) pneumococcal disease and in reducing nasopharyngeal ALOX15 (NP) VT carriage. The effect of PCV on carriage reduces VT pneumococcal transmission among vaccinated children, their families and their community, thus also reducing

VT disease in the unvaccinated fraction of the population and contributing to the overall public health impact of PCVs. Pneumococcal vaccine licensure is based on comparable immunogenicity to currently licensed PCVs and does not take into account vaccine efficacy against pneumococcal NP colonization, despite the public health importance of this latter outcome [1]. Failure to include vaccine impact on NP carriage in the licensure process may impede the speed and breadth of pneumococcal vaccine implementation. On one hand, potentially efficacious vaccines may fail licensure, and conversely vaccines with limited or no public health impact beyond their direct effect may be licensed. Further, the current conjugate immunogenicity licensure pathway does not allow for evaluation of protein and other novel-mechanism vaccines, several of which are in development. The Pneumococcal Carriage Consortium (PneumoCarr), funded by the Gates Foundation via the Grand Challenges in Global Health scheme, has aimed to collect, present and further develop the rationale and methodology to include vaccine effect on pneumococcal NP colonization (VE-col) in the vaccine licensure process, believing this to be an important improvement to the approach anchored to immunological criteria.

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