, so as to help the consumers to safeguard their awareness. To validate or substantiate a health-related claim, the proposed relationship between the product and RGFP966 the health-related end point should be identified, and appropriate measurements of both should be indicated. The interests of patients and consumer involvement are becoming integral part of clinical development and should be taken into consideration.
For regulatory purposes, health-related claims require sound evidence from all available sources. Positive evidence should not be outweighed by negative evidence, and sufficient evidence based on human experience should be available to support the safety and efficacy, including pre- and postmarketing experience. The greater the consistency of evidence from different sources, the stronger the evidence will be. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 gives the
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the authority to regulate health claims on food labels. These claims describe the link between specific nutrients or substances in food, and a particular disease or health-related condition. The process of reviewing the scientific evidence of health claims involves the following steps: define the substance–disease relationship that is the subject of the claim, identify relevant studies, classify the studies, VE-822 manufacturer rate
the studies on the basis of quality, rate the studies on the basis of the strength Cell Penetrating Peptide of their body of evidence, and report the studies’ rank order. Genetic manipulation offers the potential to enhance the existing probiotic properties of an organism or to load an organism with probiotic properties (Steidler, 2003). Elucidation of mechanisms of activity of a probiotic could enable the manipulation of organisms to create specific and targeted probiotics. Although consumer resistance to genetically modified organisms is such that GMO probiotic foods are unlikely in the near future, potential clinical applications to ameliorate or prevent chronic intractable diseases may be more readily accepted. For instance, Steidler (2003) treated mice with genetically modified Lactococcus lactis to deliver mouse cytokine IL-10 at the intestinal mucosa to prevent colitis, demonstrating that probiotics can be designed to produce potent bioactive chemicals. Braat et al. (2006) also constructed a biologically contained L. lactis to produce human IL-10 and treated Crohn’s disease patients with this GM L. lactis in a phase-1 placebo-uncontrolled trial. A decrease in disease activity was observed with minor adverse effects, and containment of the organism was achieved through its dependency on thymidine for growth and IL-10 production.