Although previous studies have shown high rates of S pneumoniae

Although previous studies have shown high rates of S. pneumoniae in Black individuals compared with White individuals [18,27], our study was underpowered to examine this difference. The reason for increased rates of other types of bacteraemia in HIV-infected Black patients is unclear HDAC inhibitor and warrants further investigation.

Patients with advanced HIV infection, as evidenced by both lower CD4 cell counts and higher viral loads, were at increased risk for bacteraemia. These data are in agreement with prior studies showing an association between low CD4 cell count and increased odds of bacteraemia in HIV-infected individuals [2,5,11]. The significant effect of HAART suggests that appropriate HAART therapy, which increases CD4 cell counts and reduces HIV viral burden, may both directly and indirectly decrease bacteraemia

risk among HIV-infected patients. This study has several potential limitations. First, the sites in the sample may not be representative of the national population of HIV-infected patients. However, the large sample included patients from multiple sites with a variety of demographic and clinical characteristics, thereby improving generalizability. Secondly, there were high rates of bacteraemia with unspecified organisms. Because this study used administrative data, we did not have the means of identifying which organisms were responsible at most sites. It is possible that some causative bacteria may have been underestimated as a result; however, detailed record review at one Atezolizumab site was consistent with the overall data, with high rates of S. aureus. Another limitation of the use of administrative data was that we were unable to classify bacteraemia Methane monooxygenase episodes as community-acquired vs. hospital-acquired. We had no data on catheter usage or use of haemodialysis. This limitation is especially relevant given the recent rise in community-acquired infections, in particular MRSA [28,29]. Future studies should focus on distinguishing between these two entities, as their

incidence, risk factors and outcomes may be dissimilar. In addition, future analyses should investigate organism-specific causes of bacteraemia stratified by IDU status, as these populations may be infected with different organisms. Finally, our analyses may not have captured all in-patient admissions for all study participants. Admissions that occurred at hospitals outside of the HIVRN may have been missed. All of our participating sites attempt to comprehensively collect in-patient hospitalizations, including those at outside hospitals. The impact of any unobserved hospitalization would underestimate our rates of bacteraemia, as opposed to increasing them; however, a recent analysis of Medicaid claims from one site indicates that 96% of all hospitalizations among the cohort were collected in our database.

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