These non-porous Cupron copper oxide containing solid surfaces possess comparable efficacy to the metallic hard surfaces, however represent a much more feasible alternative to the metallic surfaces as they are expected to be significantly more affordable and aesthetically more pleasing. Field trials are ongoing at the time of publication to demonstrate the efficacy of these countertops in
a “real world” setting check details (Borkow and Monk, unpublished). The biocidal properties of copper oxide against a range of organisms have also been previously demonstrated [40–43]. Limitations of this study include that the data is based upon ATCC laboratory strains and conducted in a controlled setting such as a laboratory, however further work is ongoing utilizing field trials of the surface to demonstrate the efficacy in real world applications. Bacterial resistance to biocidal control agents is of concern in infection prevention and can be exemplified by highly antibiotic resistant bacteria (with up to 2200-fold decreased sensitivity to the antibiotic (e.g. ) that have evolved in less than 50 years of antibiotic usage, making infected patient treatment extremely difficult (e.g. ). Consequently, the possibility of development of resistance to biocides is a real concern [46,
47]. Importantly, as opposed to antibiotics, despite evolving in the continued presence of copper, no microorganisms that are highly resistant to copper have been found, but only microorganisms Niclosamide with increased copper tolerance . Importantly, no resistant bacteria evolved in vitro when repeatedly Selleckchem BVD-523 and consecutively exposed to fabrics containing copper oxide particles . The reason why no resistance to copper is found in microorganisms exposed to constant relatively high doses of copper, is selleck because copper exerts its biocidal/antimicrobial activity not through one
mechanism (as most antibiotics), but through several parallel non-specific mechanisms [48, 49]. Both metallic copper and copper oxide particles, in the presence of humidity, even that present in air, release copper ions. The released copper ions can migrate and reach the microorganisms even though they may not be in direct contact with the copper oxide particles. These ions can cause plasma membrane permeabilization, membrane lipid peroxidation, alteration of proteins and inhibition of their biological assembly and activity, and denaturation of nucleic acids [48, 49]. It is likely that the first site that copper ions damage is the microorganisms’ envelope via electrostatic forces , altering the membrane integrity and permeability [51, 52]. Copper ions can also cause conformational changes in the structure of intracellular or membrane proteins or in the proteins active site also by direct interaction or by displacing essential metals from their native binding sites in the proteins (e.g.