The chromosomal toxR-lacZ transcriptional fusion was constructed

The chromosomal toxR-lacZ transcriptional fusion was constructed by cloning the 5′ toxR region into the suicide vector pVIK112, which also contains a promoterless lacZ gene [31]. The resulting this website plasmid was then integrated into the chromosomes of V. cholerae lacZ – strains by homologous recombination to create a single-copy toxR-lacZ and an intact copy of toxR. P BAD -controlled aphA and aphB plasmids were constructed by cloning aphA and aphB coding sequences into the pBAD24 vector [32]. pBAD-tcpPH plasmid construct was

described in [8]. In-frame deletions of toxR, toxS, tcpP, tcpA, toxT, aphA, and aphB were either described previously [15] or constructed by cloning the regions flanking target genes into the suicide vector pWM91 containing a sacB counter-selectable marker [33]. The resulting plasmids were introduced into V. cholerae by conjugation and deletion mutants were selected for double homologous recombination events. Lux activity assays Bacteria were grown at 37°C or 22°C under conditions indicated. At different time points, cultures were

withdrawn and luminescence was measured by using a Bio-Tek Synergy HT spectrophotometer. Lux expression is calculated as light units/OD600. Western blotting and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis Whole-cell lysates were prepared from bacteria overnight cultures in LB Maraviroc conditions at 37°C and samples were normalized to the amount of total protein as assayed by the Biorad protein assay (Biorad). The isolation of outer membrane (OM) proteins from V. cholerae was performed using the method described by Miller and Mekalanos [34]. Whole-cell lysates or OM preparations were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) on a 10% polyacrylamide gel and stained with Coomassie brilliant blue for visualization. SDS-PAGE gels were transferred to nitrocellulose membrane Clomifene for Western blot analysis using polyclonal rabbit anti-ToxR antibody. Gel retardation assays MBP-AphB protein was purified through amylose columns according to the manufacturer’s instructions (New England Biolabs). PCR products of the different lengths of toxR promoter

regions were digested with EcoRI and end-labeled using [α-32P]dATP and the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I. Binding reactions contained 0.1 ng of DNA and MBP-AphB proteins in a buffer consisting of 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.9), 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 60 mM KCl, and 30 mg of calf thymus DNA/ml. After 20 minutes of incubation at 25°C, samples were size-fractionated using 5% polyacrylamide gels in 1× TAE buffer (40 mM Tris-acetate, 2 mM EDTA; pH 8.5). The radioactivity of free DNA and AphB-DNA complexes was visualized by using a Typhoon 9410 PhosphorImager (Molecular Dynamics). Acknowledgements This study was supported by the NIH/NIAID R01 (AI072479) (to J.Z.), and a NSFC key project (30830008) (to B.K.). References 1.

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