, particularly A. alnobetula, at high altitudes in the Alps; the conspicuous dark brown to black ostiolar dots in dry stromata; the effuse conidiation and formation of a coconut odour on CMD. The ability of this species to grow at 35°C may be related to its habit to ascend trunks, thereby becoming
exposed to microclimatic effects, such as direct sunshine. Phylogenetically H. voglmayrii forms a lone lineage in a well-supported clade including the section Trichoderma. The formation of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone is otherwise only in that section perceptible as coconut odour (Samuels 2006). However, the conidiation, pale find more green only on SNA, or growth at 35°C are not typical of the section Trichoderma, as well as the see more glabrous stromata with conspicuous, well-defined dark ostiolar dots. See Jaklitsch et al. (2005) for more details. List of dubious or excluded names relevant to Europe This list provides comments to names or species of Hypocrea/Trichoderma that are relevant for Europe, regarded to be dubious or excluded from the genus, FK228 in vitro and some species from other regions of the world reported to occur in Europe by other authors. Abbreviations: DU.. dubious, NE.. non-European, EX.. excluded, SYN.. synonym. Recognised binomials in other genera are given in bold. For synonyms of accepted Hypocrea species see under the respective accepted taxon and the Index. DU Hypocrea armata (Fr.) Fr., Summa
Veg. Scand., p. 383 (1849). ≡ Sphaeria armata Fr., Idoxuridine Syst. Mycol. 2: 336 (1823). Status: dubious. The protologue suggests a species of Hypomyces, such as H. armeniacus Tul. & C. Tul. No information on ascospores was given. Type specimen: unavailable in UPS. Habitat and distribution: on soil in Europe (Germany, Switzerland). EX Hypocrea atra Fr., Summa Veg. Scand., p. 564 (1849). Status: a synonym of Hypomyces luteovirens (Fr. : Fr.) Tul. & C. Tul. Authentic specimens: UPS 113616 and 113617. Reference: Rogerson and Samuels (1994, p. 854). NE Hypocrea brevipes (Mont.) Sacc., Michelia 1: 304 (1878). ≡ Cordyceps brevipes Mont., Syll. Gen. Spec. Crypt., p. 201 (1856). Synonyms: Podostroma brevipes (Mont.) Seaver, Podocrea brevipes (Mont.) Sacc. & D. Sacc.
Status: accepted species, known from tropical America, New Guinea and Japan, but the occurrence in Europe remains to be proven. Doi (1975) interpreted a specimen from England (Herefordshire, Downton Gorge, on Quercus, 17 Sep. 1951, J. Webster IMI 47042), as H. brevipes. Samuels and Lodge (1996) accepted Doi’s interpretation. This specimen was examined and identified as H. alutacea with laterally fused stromata, which is not uncommon in this species. Additional references: Chamberlain et al. (2004), Doi (1979). DU Hypocrea citrina De Not. in Saccardo, Syll. Fung. 2: 528 (1883a). Status: dubious; given as a synonym of H. fungicola (= H. pulvinata) in the cryptic citation by Saccardo ‘Sphaeria et Hypocrea citrina Pers. et De Not., ex parte’.