Many gene-phenotype relations were identified: a total of 1388 OGs or on average 565 genes per reference
strain were identified to be related to at least one of these 140 phenotypes. In the present study, we focussed on gene clusters consisting of at least two phenotype-related genes that are in close genomic proximity (e.g., in operons; see Methods). Transposases, integrases and phage proteins were also removed, because relations between these proteins and phenotypes are likely to be spurious. Discarding above-mentioned genes decreased the percentage of phenotype-related genes by about 50% on average. In analyzing gene clusters, we first JPH203 ic50 considered gene clusters of which their BIRB 796 supplier presence relates to a positive trait (e.g., growth) and absence relates to a negative trait (e.g., no growth). There were also many gene clusters with inverse patterns, where an absence of a gene cluster leads to a positive trait.
An inverse relationship between genes and phenotypes might indicate that in the absence of a regulator, genes previously inhibited by this particular regulator can become active, which in turn Volasertib solubility dmso might lead to a positive trait (e.g., survival of a strain). In the supplementary data we provide all identified relations including inverse relations (see genotype-phenotype relations in an Additional file 2 that contains a mini-website). Genes related to carbohydrate utilization Several gene clusters related to fermentation of different sugars were identified by genotype-phenotype matching. Among them were gene clusters that were previously described to be involved in carbohydrate utilization . For instance, the presence
tuclazepam of a gene cluster required for arabinose utilization  was confirmed in this study to correlate strongly with the ability to grow on arabinose (see Figure 1 for colour-coded representation of gene-phenotype relations and Figure 2 for gene-phenotype relations of KF147 genes LLKF_1616-1622, and their orthologs in query strains). Several gene clusters were found to be related to sucrose utilization; for instance a cluster of 4 genes (LLKF_0661-LLKF_0664 in strain KF147, and their orthologs in query strains) that already was annotated as being involved in sucrose utilization (Figure 2) . The other three reference strains do not grow on sucrose, and this gene cluster was absent in these strains. These genes were also found to be inversely related to growth on lactose, where they were present in most of the strains that grew slowly on lactose and absent in most of the strains that can grow on lactose (Figure 2). Such a relationship suggests that most of the strains that grow well on sucrose (22 strains) cannot grow or grow slowly on lactose (17 out of 22 strains) or vice-versa (10 out of 15 lactose-degrading strains cannot grow on sucrose).