In a picture-word mismatch paradigm, we manipulated the semantic congruency between picture contexts and spoken words, and recorded event-related potential (ERP) responses to the words. Previous similar studies focused on the N400 response, but we focused instead on the onsets of semantic congruency effects (N200 or Phonological Mismatch Negativity), which contain critical information for incremental spoken-word processing. We analyzed ERPs obtained longitudinally from two age cohorts of 40 primary-school children (total n=80) in a 3-year period. Children first tested at 7 years of age showed earlier onsets
of congruency effects (by approximately 70 ms) when tested 2 years later (i.e., at age 9). Children first tested at 9 years of age did not show such shortening AZ 628 ic50 of onset latencies 2 years later
(i.e., at age 11). Overall, children’s onset latencies at age 9 appeared similar to those of adults. These data challenge the previous hypothesis that word processing is well established at age 7. Instead they support the view that the acceleration of spoken-word processing continues beyond age 7. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Emotionality as well as cognitive abilities contribute to the acquisition and retrieval of memories as well as to the consolidation of long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular model of memory formation. However, little is known about the timescale and relative contribution of these processes. Therefore, we tested the effects of weak water Dorsomorphin order maze training, containing both emotional and cognitive demands, on LTP in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. The population spike amplitude (PSA)-LTP was prolonged in all rats irrespective of whether they memorized the platform position or not, whereas the field excitatory postsynaptic potential Oxymatrine (fEPSP)-LTP was impaired in good learners and enhanced in poor learners. We then dissociated the behavioral performance of rats during the water maze task by principal component analysis and by means of stress hormone concentrations into underlying “”emotional”" and “”cognitive”"
factors. PSA-LTP was associated with “”emotional”" and fEPSP-LTP with “”cognitive”" behavior. PSA-LTP was depotentiated after the blockade of corticosterone binding mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) in trained animals, while fEPSP-LTP was unaffected. These results suggest that synaptic processing and encoding of emotional information in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is realized fast and further information transfer is detectable by the reinforcement of PSA-LTP, whereas that of cognitive memories is long lasting.”
“Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is attracting increasing interest as a therapeutic tool for neurorehabilitation, particularly after stroke, because of its potential to modulate local excitability and therefore promote functional plasticity. Previous studies suggest that timing is important in determining the behavioural effects of brain stimulation.