e, a remarkable loss of fenestrae

[Fig 2E,F]) These mo

e., a remarkable loss of fenestrae

[Fig. 2E,F]). These morphological changes resemble those reported by Sarphie et al.23 24 hours after LPS administration to rats. In addition, immunohistochemistry performed on sections obtained on day 7 after AZD3965 LPS injection showed that the LPS-primed, Aoah−/− livers contained many more large, F4/80-positive cells (KCs or recruited monocytes) than did LPS-primed, Aoah+/+ livers (Fig. 3A,B), and that many of these macrophages appeared to contain phagocytosed, CD11b-positive neutrophils (Fig. 3C,D). The morphological changes seen in the livers of LPS-treated Aoah−/− mice are thus consistent with activation of KCs (and possibly recruited monocyte-macrophages) and sinusoidal endothelial cell injury in livers that retain fully acylated LPS. We used flow cytometry to identify individual nonparenchymal cell types within the liver. As shown in Fig. 4, LPS-challenged Aoah−/− mice experienced significantly greater intrahepatic accumulation of B cells, monocyte-macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, CD3+ T cells, and NK1.1+ natural killer cells than did LPS-treated Aoah+/+ mice. The hepatic content of these cell types had returned almost to baseline within see more 3 weeks

after LPS exposure in Aoah−/− mice (Fig. 4), yet liver size did not decrease (Fig. S1D).6 To test the hypothesis that hepatocyte click here proliferation contributes to LPS-induced hepatomegaly,21 we used BrdU to quantitate cell division. Beginning 2 hours after intravenous LPS challenge, mice received BrdU daily until they were studied on day 7. As shown in Fig. S2, LPS-induced cell proliferation was similar in LPS-primed WT and knockout (KO) mice. Treatment with the mitogen TCPOBOP, used as a control, also induced equivalent liver cell proliferation in Aoah+/+ and Aoah−/− mice. LPS induced similar acute plasma cytokine responses in Aoah+/+ and Aoah−/− mice (Fig. 5A). Plasma levels of certain cytokines (e.g., IL-10) persisted much longer in LPS-treated Aoah−/− mice than they did in LPS-treated WT mice, whereas other

cytokine levels followed a similar time-course in the two groups (RANTES, IL-6, TNF, MCP-1). Quantitation of hepatic mRNA abundance using real-time PCR showed striking elevations in IL-10 and TNF mRNAs in Aoah−/− mice over a 7-day period after LPS injection (Fig. 5B); mRNAs for several antiinflammatory proteins (IRAK-M, SHIP, SOCS1, A-20) were also elevated in these mice 5 to 7 days after LPS injection (Fig. 5C), as were the mRNAs for IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), and CCL2 (MCP-1). Although liver TNF and IL-1β mRNA levels remained elevated for many days, we were unable to detect TNF or IL-1β protein in either liver lysates or plasma beyond 24 hours after LPS injection. Plasma MCP-1 levels were similar in Aoah−/− and Aoah+/+ mice.

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