Clinical trials will also be needed for the m102.4 human antibody therapy, and both the United States
and Australia are developing the m102.4 antibody for human use as a Nipah and Hendra virus countermeasure. Nipah virus has not occurred in Malaysia since 1998 and requests for compassionate use of the m102.4 antibody in India or Bangladesh following high-risk Nipah virus exposure or cases of infection have not occurred and may be difficult to orchestrate. Whether the antibody could be pre-positioned in Nipah virus endemic areas INCB024360 concentration will largely depend on international cooperation and financial support. The views expressed in the manuscript are solely those of the authors, and they do not represent official views or opinions of the Department of Defense or The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. CCB, KNB and TWG are supported in part by grants from the United States, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health (NIH). ZZ and DSD are supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Cancer Institute, Center for Cancer Research. “
“Sandfly-borne viruses belong to the genera Phlebovirus
PLX3397 molecular weight (family Bunyaviridae), Vesiculovirus (family Rhabdoviridae) and Orbivirus (family Reoviridae). In this review, we focus on phleboviruses transmitted by sandflies in Eurasia and Africa, which are associated with sandfly vectors that belong to the genus Phlebotomus. Sandfly-borne phleboviruses are widely distributed in the Mediterranean region, in Africa, the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and central Asia. Except for Regorafenib Toscana virus, which has a marked tropism for central and peripheral
neurological systems, sandfly fevers cause moderately severe disease, and are often given little attention by physicians. There is also much less scientific interest in sandfly-transmitted viral diseases than in other arboviruses. For instance, a PubMed-based bibliographic search using “Toscana virus”, “sandfly virus”, and “sandfly fever virus” retrieved 232, 385, and 265 references, respectively, while searches with the keywords “West Nile virus” and “dengue virus” retrieved more than 4500 and 6000 papers. It is therefore difficult to provide accurate estimates of infection rates due to sandfly-transmitted viruses because of the lack of data. However, their significance in terms of public health and human diseases should be underlined and merit increased attention from physicians, public health agencies and diagnostic virology laboratories. In regions where sandflies are present, high seroprevalence rates have been recorded in human populations and in domestic animals. Most published studies have focused on travelers and on soldiers stationed in endemic areas.