Bacteria were collected by centrifugation, re-suspended in PBS an

Bacteria were collected by centrifugation, re-suspended in PBS and diluted in tissue-culture medium to the required concentration. Bacteria were added to host cells and incubated at 37 °C 5% CO2 for 2 h. The monolayer was washed twice

in pre-warmed PBS and medium containing 50 μg/ml gentamicin was added to kill extracellular bacteria. Following incubation for 1 h host cells were washed twice with PBS and medium containing 10 μg/ml gentamicin was added for the remainder of the experiment. Intracellular bacteria were enumerated by serial dilution and plating on LB agar following lysis of host this website cells with 0.5% Triton 100×. Following the manufacturer’s instructions, the Cytotox96 assay kit (Promega, Southampton, UK) was used to determine the relative viability of host cells after infection. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test or one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction. P ≤ 0.05 was considered

significant. Deletion mutants were generated in SL1344 that lacked the entire atp operon or the F0 or F1 components only. When grown in LB broth the various atp mutants all had similar generation times in comparison with SL1344. These were 29.72 (±0.78) min for SL1344, 32.22 (±1.90) min for SL1344 F0, 33.12 (±1.06) min for SL1344 F1 and 29.24 (±0.85) min for SL1344 atp (all mean ± SEM from 3 replicates). However, final viable bacterial counts of overnight cultures were consistently lower in the various atp mutants compared to SL1344. The viable counts in 24 hr cultures were Selleckchem STI571 log10 9.69 CFU (±0.08) for SL1344, log10 9.19 CFU (±0.04) for SL1344 F0, log10 9.21 CFU (±0.16) for SL1344 F1 and log10 9.29 CFU (±0.09) for SL1344 atp (all mean ± SEM from 3 replicates), although these differences were only statistically significant between SL1344 and SL1344 F0. As seen with mutations in the atp operon in E. coli [27], Bacillus subtilis [28] and S. Typhimurium [29] all our atp mutants were unable to utilise succinate as a sole carbon or energy source. The three atp mutants showed no growth after 24 or 48 h, as measured by OD595. The atp mutants had OD595 readings of 0.001

(±0.001) for SL1344 atp, 0.0015 (±0.0005) for SL1344 F0 and 0.0015 (±0.0005) Adenylyl cyclase for SL1344 F1 at 48hrs, whereas SL1344 showed visible growth at both 24 and 48 h, with OD595 readings of 0.0335 (±0.01) and 0.374 (±0.07) respectively (all mean ± SEM from 3 replicates). Previous studies have shown that individual gene deletions or transposon insertions in the atp operon attenuate S. Typhimurium in both mice and chickens [23], [29] and [30] but attenuation following deletion of the whole operon or individual subunits has not been tested. To assess the level of attenuation caused by the deletion of the F0 or F1 subunits, or the entire atp operon, BALB/c mice were infected intravenously with 105 CFU of SL1344, SL1344 F0, SL1344 F1 or SL1344 atp. Bacterial loads in the spleens and livers were enumerated at the time points shown ( Fig. 1).

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