Among HSWs, the use of mobile phones for solicitation ranged from 37.6% in Quetta to 83% in Peshawar and among MSWs the use of mobile phones ranged from 27% in Karachi to 52% in Quetta. In Quetta, a large proportion of HSWs (41%) find clients through gurus. Client volume tended to be higher among HSWs and among both MSWs and HSWs in Quetta and Peshawar.
Condom use with clients was most consistent in Quetta, with 31% of MSWs and 41% of HSWs reporting always using condoms with clients. GSK923295 Peshawar had the greatest proportion reporting never using condoms. Conclusions There is considerable geographic heterogeneity in the characteristics and operational dynamics of MSWs and HSWs across Pakistan.”
“Background: ss 2 adrenergic receptor (ADRb2) polymorphisms including ADRb2+46G bigger than A have been reported to cause adverse outcomes in mild
asthmatics. The extent to which ADRb2 polymorphisms and in particular their haplotypes contribute to severe asthma is unknown. Objective: To determine the association of ADRb2 polymorphisms and haplotypes with asthma severity. Methods: Caucasians (n = 2979) were genotyped for 11 ADRb2 polymorphisms. The cohort (mean age 39.6, 60% female) included 2296 non-asthmatics, 386 mild asthmatics, 172 moderate Epigenetics inhibitor asthmatics and 125 severe asthmatics. Haplotype frequency and haplotype pair for each subject was determined using the PHASE algorithm. Results: The three asthmatic cohorts were comparable in age and gender but were distinguishable from each other in terms of symptoms, spirometry, medication use and health care utilisation (p smaller than 0.001). None of the polymorphisms showed a genotypic or allelic association with asthma diagnosis or severity. Nine haplotypes were identified and no association was found with asthma diagnosis or severity per se. Haplotype pair 2/4 was associated with asthma severity (Trend Test, OR 1.42, p = 0.0008) but not with asthma per se. Prevalence of haplotype pair
2/2 appeared to decrease with asthma severity ( Trend Test, OR 0.78, p = 0.067). Two new haplotypes were identified, occurring exclusively in asthmatics at a frequency of bigger than = 1%. In addition, a positive association between carriage of ADRb2 +523*C and increased risk of atopy was discovered. Conclusions: ADRb2 haplotype pair selleck inhibitor 2/4 is associated with severe asthma and is consistent with findings of poor bronchodilator response in mild asthmatics who are also haplotype 2/4.”
“Background: The Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2) has previously been characterized for its role in plant development. MAX2 appears essential for the perception of the newly characterized phytohormone strigolactone, a negative regulator of polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis. Results: A reverse genetic screen for F-box protein mutants altered in their stress responses identified MAX2 as a component of plant defense. Here we show that MAX2 contributes to plant resistance against pathogenic bacteria.