2006; Wilson et al 2008) A drawback

of a 1–5-kHz system

2006; Wilson et al. 2008). A drawback

of a 1–5-kHz system is that with its relatively high excitation densities, multiple www.selleckchem.com/products/i-bet-762.html excited states may appear in a single multichromophoric complex, resulting in singlet–singlet annihilation processes among (B)Chls (Van Grondelle 1985). With the laser systems that operate at 40–250 kHz, a lower pulse energy can be used for excitation with respect to the kHz systems owing to their higher repetition rate, which allows more laser shots to be averaged per unit time. Typically, pulse AMN-107 nmr energies of 0.5–10 nJ are used, roughly corresponding to excited-state populations of <1–10%. Under the right circumstances, detection sensitivities of ~10−6 units of absorbance can be achieved. Accordingly, this kind of system has been used to study exciton

migration in large systems with many connected pigments such as chloroplasts and light-harvesting complex (LHC) II aggregates (Holt et al. 2005; Ma et al. 2003; Ruban et al. 2007). In addition, it has been used to examine exciton migration in isolated LH complexes under annihilation-free conditions (Monshouwer et al. 1998; Novoderezhkin et al. 2004; Palacios et al. 2006; Papagiannakis et al. 2002). Drawbacks of this type of systems involve the shorter time between pulses (4–20 μs), which may lead to the build-up of relatively long-lived species such as triplet or charge-separated states. In addition, multichannel Histone Acetyltransferase inhibitor detection on a shot-to-shot basis has been limited to 14 channels at such high repetition rates (Ruban et al. 2007), although significant strides are currently being made in our laboratory to resolve this limitation. Figure 2 shows a scheme of an ultrafast transient absorption

setup, as it exists today in the Biophysics Laboratory of the Laser Center at the Vrije Universiteit (LCVU) in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. A broadband oscillator (Coherent Vitesse) generates pulses of ~30 fs duration with a wavelength of 800 nm, a bandwidth of ~35 nm at a repetition rate of oxyclozanide 80 MHz. The pulses from the oscillator are too weak to perform any meaningful spectroscopy and therefore have to be amplified. Femtosecond pulse amplification is not a trivial matter because at high energies, the peak power in a femtosecond pulse becomes so high that amplification and pulse-switching media such as crystals and Pockels cells easily get damaged. A Pockels cell is an electro-optical device containing a crystal, such as potassium dihydrogenphosphate (KH2PO4), capable of switching the polarization of light when an electrical potential difference is applied to it. In this way, the amount of stimulated emission from the laser cavity can be controlled.

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