Comparisons EPZ015666 were also made, as shown in Figure 7, with those related studies for the SB525334 in vitro viscosities of 40 and 80 cP. The present data are consistently higher than those of previous studies [2, 10] with regard to both the percentage of
the stretched DNA molecules and their stretch ratio. In fact, about 10% of DNA molecule stretch can reach the ratio of 0.52, and about 7% of DNA molecules can reach 0.63. Again, these are higher levels than those of previous studies. Table 4 shows a summary of the DNA mean stretching rate for all the cases under study. Figure 6 Stretching ratio histogram for different buffers with different viscosities. (a) 40 cP, (b) 60 cP, and (c) 80 cP. Figure 7 Comparisons with the related previous studies for DNA stretching. Table 4 DNA mean stretching rate Input voltage (DC) Buffer viscosity (cP) 1× TE 1× TAE 1× TBE 1× TPE 1× TBS 2.6 V 40 0.26 0.252 0.253 0.265 0.262 60 0.271 0.266 0.271 0.2676 0.2754 80 0.278 0.283 0.281 0.28 0.2844 2.8 V 40 0.284 0.2867 0.283 0.2867 0.2922 60 0.288 0.293 0.289 0.2917 0.2953 80 0.311 0.301 0.3 NVP-HSP990 solubility dmso 0.3035 0.308 3.0 V 40 0.302 0.309 0.302 0.3031 0.3061 60 0.317 0.315 0.307 0.316 0.315 80 0.318 0.317 0.318 0.3165 0.317 Based on the DNA molecule conformation history, it was found that the entire semi-annular duct exhibited two different opposite trends. First, in the first half duct (i.e., θ ≤ 90°), the DNA molecules obviously experienced stretching; however, for the second
half duct (i.e., 90° < θ ≤ 180°), it experienced an opposite behavior like recoiling. This
is also evidenced by Figure 8, as time increases with an interval of Δt = 5 s. Figure 9a,b shows the relaxation time versus viscosity and the functional relationship of viscosity with , respectively. Following Figure 9a, one may conclude that the relaxation time was a function of as well. Also included in Figure 9a are those from the Rouse/Zimm model and Fang et al.  for comparison. Good agreement and consistency were found. In fact, the present results for the five different buffers under study were between those of existing models. In Figure 9b, the viscosity which was correlated in terms of power law with an average power of 0.7 was found under different DC voltage inputs. The maximum stretch of the stretching force was plotted and Idoxuridine is shown in Figure 9a with comparisons to those of listed models [12, 13]. The data shown strongly indicated that a small stretching force was needed, as compared to the existing model with the same stretching length. However, the developing trend of the present study is the same as those of existing models . The viscosity effect for μ = 40 ~ 80 cP of the present study seems not to have been noted as far as the stretching force is concerned, as shown in Figure 10.