0 and 2.50 μM against S. albus and B. subtilis, respectively. Compound 87 and the known
(Z)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(6′-methylhept-2′-en-2′-yl)phenol showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity with MIC values ranging from 2.5 to >20.0 μM (Li et al. 2012a). The mangrove-derived fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. PSU-MA69 was isolated from a branch of Rhizophora apiculata (Rhizophoraceae), which was collected in Sutun province, Thailand. The ethyl acetate extract of this fungus exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans NCPF3153, and Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC90112. Chemical investigation afforded nine new PD0325901 secondary metabolites, including four diphenyl ethers, pestalotethers A-D (89–92), three chromones, pestalochromones A-C (93–95), one xanthone, pestaloxanthone (96) and one new butenolide, pestalolide
(97), in addition to eleven known products. Compounds obtained in sufficient amounts were evaluated for antifungal activity against C. albicans NCPF3153 and C. neoformans ATCC90112. Compound 97 showed weak antifungal activity against both fungal strains with equal MIC values of 653.1 μM. Compounds 89, 90 as well as the known metabolites pestheic acid (98), chloroisosulochrin dehydrate (99) and chloroisosulochrin (100) were mildly active against C. neoformans with MIC values of 505.1, 591.7, 523.6, 574.7 and 546.4 μM, respectively, www.selleckchem.com/products/ABT-263.html but were inactive against C. albicans. The remaining
compounds were inactive against both C. albicans and C. neoformans. Interestingly, compounds 89, 90, pestheic acid and chloroisosulochrin dehydrate that feature a chlorine substituent displayed better antifungal activity against C. neoformans than 92, 96 and isosulochrin dehydrate (101) which lack a chlorine substituent (Klaiklay et al. 2012). Cohen et al. reported three novel meroterpenoids, insuetolides A–C (102–104) as well as the new (E)-6-(40-hydroxy-20-butenoyl)-strobilactone A (105), from the EtOAc extract of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus FAD insuetus (OY-207), which was isolated from the Mediterranean sponge Psammocinia sp. (Irciniidae). Insuetolides 102–104 revealed a new carbon skeleton derived from the cyclization of farnesyl and 3,5-dimethylorsellinic acid. When tested towards Neurospora crassa, 102 and the known metabolites strobilactone A (106) and (E,E)-6-(60,70-dihydroxy-20,40-octadienoyl)-strobilactone A (107) exhibited anti-fungal activity with MIC values of 140, 242, and 162 μM, respectively (Cohen et al. 2011). Two new antibacterial cerebroside derivatives, named flavusides A and B (108 and 109), in addition to four known secondary metabolites were isolated from the CH2Cl2-MeOH fraction of marine-derived Aspergillus flavus. The fungus was isolated from the surface of the edible green alga, Codium fragile (Codiaceae), collected in GeoMun Island, Yeosu, Korea.